Timeline

Islam’s War to Save the World


1,300 Years of Struggle by

Howard Bloom  
Presented at the
NY Military Affairs Symposium
January 7, 2005  

 

 map
Islam,9/11, Moslem, terrorism, terrorist, militant, violence, war, Islam's War Against the West, Islamic Extremism, Islamic History, barbarian invasions, military history, Howard Bloom, The Lucifer Principle, Global Brain

Map and additional research by Jason “JZ” Liszkiewicz and additional research by Stephen Lee

3rd-6th centuriesThe eastern Roman Empire and the Persian Sassanians, the superpowers of their time, wear each other down in continuous conflict for the domination of Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor.They dismiss the desert fleas of the Arab Peninsula as insignificant barbarians.

624 Jihad allowed.[i]Mohammed leads or commands 65 military campaigns in ten years.[ii]

624 Mohammed leads and commands the Battle of Badr[iii] against the Meccans.Allah tells Mohammed, “”It behoveth not a prophet that he should have captives until he hath greatly slaughtered in the land.”[iv][v]Some sources say that 22 prisoners are beheaded “by the hand of Ali”.[vi]

625 Mohammed leads and commands the Battle of Uhud[vii]

626 Mohammed command the “action against Banu Nazair”[viii]

627 Mohammed leads and commands the battle ofthe Trench[ix]

C. 627Mohammed declares that Jews are “are a people without understanding…transformed into apes and swine…racing each other in sin and rancor…. Evil indeed aretheir works.[x]This is the point, according to modern Islamic extremists, at which a worldwide war between Jews and Moslems began.

627 The arch angel Gabriel, speaking on behalf of Allah orders Mohammed to command an attack against the Jewish Banu Quraiza. After the Banu Quraiza surrendered, all the men were beheaded, the women and children taken as slaves, and the property distributed as booty.[xi], [xii], [xiii]

629 Mohammed leads and commands the Battle of Khaibar[xiv]

629 Mohammed sends out his “invitations” to the kings[xv]

629 Mohammed commands a troop of 3,000 to attack Mootah[xvi], the first attack of Islam against an Arab-Christian outpost of the Byzantine Empire[xvii]–and the first excused by the deliberate instigation of Mohammed’s “invitations”

630 Mohammed leads the Conquest of Mecca[xviii]

630The Battle of Hunayn—the last battle Mohammed led personally.Though the battle was an embarrassment for the Moslems, Mohammed stayed on the field after most others had fled and continued to rally his fleeing troops to return to the field of battle.[xix], [xx],[xxi]

631Expedition to Tabuk[xxii]

632Mohammed, on his deathbed, orders Usama to head north and attack the Syrian province of the Byzantine Empire[xxiii]

632 Mohammed’s death

632-661 The reign of four men, four caliphs, whose example must be followed by true Moslems—Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali, the “companions of the prophet”, the founding fathers of Islam.All were warriors and conquerors

633-640 Muslim Arabs conquered Syria[xxiv]

634 Battle of the Bridge—beginning of conquest of Iraq[xxv]

637 Battle of Al-Qadisiyyah—Arabs defeat Sasanian Persians and sack their capital Ctesiphon, the home base of Nestorian Christianity—conquest of most of Iraq[xxvi]

637Conquest of Christian and Jewish Jerusalem[xxvii]

642The battle of Navahand[xxviii]—Islam completes its conquest of Persia/Iran and Iraq[xxix] and eases its conquest of India and Egypt, and Afghanistan

1071Byzantine defeat at Manzikert. Turkey—the breadbasket of the Byzantine empire, taken by Moslems.[lii]

1164Saladin mounts three campaigns against the Crusaders.[liii]

1174 Saladin conquers Damascus

1200 Turks reach Bengal and turn it into an Islamic center by converting Hindus[liv]. [lv]

1200s Mogadishu in Somalia turns from a territory run by a loose coalition ofArab and Persian families to a Sultanate run by the Fakhr ad-Din dynasty[lvi]

1250 Aceh becomes first foothold and Sultanate of Islam in the Indonesian archipelago[lvii], [lviii]

1250???-1571Islamic traders establish trading cities, sultanates, in the Philippines…Manila is one of them.[lix]

1326 The Chagatayid Khan Tarmashirin converts to Islam.In the Chagatai Khanate, Tarmashirin converts to Islam.Chagatai Khanate= the five Central Asian states and Northern Iran[lx] his conversion paved the way to the overall Islamization of the Chaghadaids Arabic, Persian, and Turkic sources stress the importance of his islamization to the establishment of Islam among the Mongols of the Chaghadaid Khanate, (1) some of these same sources simultaneously suggest that the rebellion against Tarmashirin that resulted in his depositon was caused by his Islamic policies. (2) Was Tarmashirin, then, both the one who brought Islam to the Chaghadaids and the victim of his own success?[lxi]

1330Oz Beg (Uzbek), Khan of the Golden Horde, converts to Islam, spreading Islam through most of central and northern Asia—from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kirghizia to Siberia[lxii]–often by continuing and consolidating Genghis Khan’s conquests in the form of what the conquered and subjugated Russians called a holy war[lxiii]

1331Ibn Battutah, the great traveler from Algeria, visits Mombassa.

c. 1350“In the 14th cent. Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduced Islam into the southern islands [of the Philippines] and extended their influence as far north as Luzon.”[lxiv]

1389 Moslem Turks defeat the Hungarians at Kosovo and begin gobbling the Balkans and parts of Eastern Europe[lxv]

1396 Turks take Nikopol, a key trade and mining center in the Ukraine[lxvi]

c. 1400 Moslem raiding parties from the Southern Philippine sultanates establish the practice of raiding the Philippines northern islands for slaves.[lxvii] The daughters of the slaves are encouraged to convert to Islam and to marry Islamic Moros. Moslem Filipinos, some converted by Arab missionaries from cities like Baghdad, establish a practice of regular raiding—“piracy”.

1400 King of Malacca (Melaka) converts peacefully to Islam and takes the Malay Peninsula with him.The benefit—Malacca becomes the world’s greatest trade center.[lxviii], [lxix]

c. 1414-1450 King of Malacca extends his sway over Malay Peninsula, Mindanao, and Singapore.

1405 Sufi traders inject Islam even further into the Philippines[lxx]

1444 Turks take Varna—an East Bulgarian ship making and trading center on the Black Sea[lxxi]

1457 Royal Court of Kingdom of Patani covering the 3 modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat[lxxii], converts to Islam.[lxxiii]

c. 1450-1550 Arab migration to Indonesia spreading from base of Sumatran colony.

1453 Moslem conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Muhammad.[lxxiv]

1463 Ottoman Turks conquer Bosnia.

1509 The second Portuguese viceroy of the Indian Ocean, Alfonso de Albuquerque, learned that Malacca was both a stronghold of Islam and the key to the spice trade, so in 1509 he sent four ships to check out the port. If he wanted an incident with the Malays he got one; while the Portuguese were touring the city the sultan ordered his guards to attack them, killing sixty men and destroying one ship before the rest got away. One officer who distinguished himself in this battle was Ferdinand Magellan.[lxxv]

1511 Two years later Albuquerque personally led a fleet of nineteen ships to Malacca. The Malaccan force outnumbered the Portuguese by a factor of 15 to 1, but the superior technology of Portuguese ships and cannon prevailed, and Malacca fell after a six-week siege. To prevent any trouble with the powerful mainland states to the north (remember Siam’s claim to all of Malaya), Albuquerque immediately sent embassies to Ayutthaya and Pegu, and diplomatic relations with both kingdoms got off to a good start. Afterwards Portugal sent expeditions to the Moluccas (1512), China (1513), and Japan (1543), securing trade with all of those places.

[lxxvi]

 

1518 Barbarossa becomes admiral of the seaborne Jihad—the Mediterranean Islamic fleet.

1526 Battle of Panipat establishes Moghul dominance of Delhi and Agra, creating the base for a Moghul Empire in India that would last until 1857[lxxvii]

1526 Pest, in Hungary, falls to the Turks[lxxviii]

1530 onward the Somali Imam Ahmed Ibraham al-Ghazi pulls off many a victory in trying to take Christian Abyssinia.The Abyssinians call on the Portuegese for help.[lxxix]

1530-1780 In the opinion of Dr. Mohsin Farooqi, “Europe [was] under Muslim Rule.” More than a million Europeans are taken as slaves by the Islamic Navy of Jihad from Sicily, Cornwall, Ireland, Lundy (which the Moslems conquered and established as an Islamic base), the north Devon coast, the south and west coasts of England, the coast of France and Brittany, Ile de Groix, the Biscay coast, Portugal, and Spain.[lxxx], [lxxxi]Slaves had a higher market value in the Islamic world at the time than plunder.[lxxxii], [lxxxiii], [lxxxiv]Father Pierre Dan, a priest who negotiated ransoms, described the selling of an Irish family at the slave mart. ‘It was a piteous sight to see them exposed for sale at Algiers…when they parted the wife from the husband, and the father from the child.’”[lxxxv]

1538“In 1538, the Turkish Navy defeated the combined naval force of Spain, Venice (Italy) and Pope, a number of times. This made them master of Mediterranean Sea.”

1539 Sher Khan, an Afghan, defeats the Moghul Emperor Humayan and temporarily takes control of the Moghul Empire in India[lxxxvi]

1541 Buda in Hungary is conquered by the Turks[lxxxvii]

1542 the Somali Imam’s troops trying to conquer Abyssinia are sent running and the Imam of Somalia leading the onslaught is killed.[lxxxviii]

1571 Battle of Lepanto–one of the biggest naval battles in history.200 war galleys from a combined Spanish, Venetian, Italian, and papal navy, ships carrying 30,000 fighters, defeat the Islamic fleet of the Ottomans, killing or capturing 15,000 Moslem naval warriors and liberating 10,000 Christian galley slaves.The Christians destroy almost the entire Islamic Mediterranean navy.But it is speedily rebuilt and the Moslem navy returns to its position as a ruling force in the Mediterranean Sea.

1571 head of the Moslems of the Philippines is killed in Manila, possibly by Spanish imperialists

1575-1769 Redemptionist priests purchase the freedom of 15,500 Christian slaves taken in raids on European lands by the Navy of the Islamic Jihad.Most of those taken go unransomed, are beaten, bloodied, broken and are sold and resold from Algiers to Egypt, Ethiopia, Arabia, and Turkey.[lxxxix]

1575 Miguel Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is captured as a galley slave for the Navy of the Islamic Jihad and loses the use of one hand.[xc]

1576 Bangladesh (Bengal), already in Moslem hands, is conquered by the Moghul emperor Akhbar.[xci] [xcii]

c. 1580-c. 1880 War over Philippines between Moslems and Spaniards.

1600-1700 Spain and Italy lose 20% of their population in naval raids carried out by the Islamic corsairs.[xciii]

1605 Moghul empire stretches from Afghanistan to the Deccan Plateau in India.

1622-16447,000 English abducted from British beaches and from ships by the Islamic Navy of Jihad.

1631 Islamic Navy of Jihad raids Baltimore in Ireland, sacking the town and capturing most of the inhabitants as slaves.[xciv], [xcv]

1640 Islamic Navy of Jihad mounts repeated attacks on Cornwall and enslaves 3,000 inhabitants in a year.

1628-1634The Islamic Navy in the Mediterranean takes 80 French ships and enslaves 1,331 European men and women. “Beautiful women were given as gifts to the sultan, for his harem.[xcvi]  Gunners, seamen, and shipbuilders were especially prized as slaves.”[xcvii]

1636 The Navy of the Islamic Jihad in the Mediterranean captures over 1,000 Englishmen in a mere six months. “When a Barbary galley drew alongside a Christian vessel, as many as 100 Janissaries swarmed aboard the Christian vessel and overpowered the crew.”[xcviii]

1650 The Sultan of Oman, Sultan bin Sayf, expels the Portuguese.[xcix]

1670 in Somalia “The Kadi administering Islamic law was at this time a Hawiye Somali whose predecessors, from about 1670, had been Sayyids from Arabia. …The main exports were slaves, ivory, hides, horns, ghee, and gums. On the coast itself Arab divers were active collecting sponge cones. And provisions were cheap.[c]

1677 the Wolof tribes in Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Northern Guinea on the Atlantic coast of Africa are conquered and forced to accept Islam. (http://www.wagateway.org/people.htm)

1683 Battle of Vienna–Ottoman Empire ceases to be Europe’s only superpower–but becomes a major power whose influence can make or break alliances[ci]

1690 The Turks drive the Austrians out of Bulgaria and Transylvania and retake Belgrade and Nis (in Montenegro)[cii]

1717 The discovery of gold on the banks of the Oxus during the reign of Peter the Great, together with the desire of Russia to open a trade route to India, prompted an armed trade expedition to the region, led by Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, and consisting of 4,000 men. Upon receiving the men the Khan set up camp under the pretense of goodwill, then ambushed and slaughtered the envoys, leaving ten alive to send back. Peter the Great, indebted after wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden, did nothing.[ciii]Before hisconversiontoChristianityPrinceAlexander Bekovich-Cherkassky’s name had been Devlet Kizden Mirza. He came from a line of Kabardian rulers. As a boy he had been stolen by Nogai tribesmen. He fell into the hands of theRussians when Russian troopsunderVassily Golitsin besieged the town of Azov[civ]

1729 Moslems yank Mombassa in Kenya from Portuguese hands

1736 Nadir Shah declares himself Shah of Iran

1738 Nadir Shah invades Afghanistan and takes its capital, Kandahar.Then he invades India, attacks Delhi, and carries off unbelievable amounts of loot, including the Peacock Throne and the 108 carat Koh-i-Noor diamond[cv]

1758 Ahmad Shah loots Delhi

1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya, ruler of Futa Toro–a Fulani area in Senegal.”Fulani consider themselves the “holder of the torch” of Islam and have historically forced other ethnic groups into Islam through “jihad.”[cvi]

1800—roughly.The Sultan of Oman becomes the “protector” of Mogadishu in Somalia.[cvii]

1804 The jihad of Usman dan Fodio establishes the Sokoto caliphate in Northern Nigeria[cviii]

1814 the governor of Mombasa invites the British to protect its indendence–and Mogadishu’s– from the Omani Sultanate.[cix]

1824Sultan Sa’id ibn Sultan of Oman moves his capital from Muscat on the Arabian Peninsula to Zanzibar, off the east coast of Africa.Zanzibar then becomes famous for its prime export—slaves.[cx]

1828 The Britsare driven out of Mombasa, in 1828 and don’t bother to return.[cxi]

1843 Somalia’s Mogadishu, in ruins because of plague and famine, is ruled by the representatives of the Sultan of Zanzibar. These representatives are “an old Arab with an Indian assistant as tax collector”[cxii]

1846 Sultan of Zanzibar controls all the Benadir ports of Eastern Africa. [cxiii]

???Bandu State in West Sudan.

1820-1862 El Hadj Umar Tal in Senegal gets his childhood education in madrassa, goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1820, then becomes the Caliph of the Tijaniyya brotherhood, and mounts a jihad that conquers both black unbelievers and other small Islamic states in the neighborhood.70,000 die in just three of his battles.But in 1862 he finally creates an empire–the Toucouleur Caliphate??–that includes Guinea and Senegal

1830-1857 Haji Shariatullah in Bengal returns from a pilgrimage to Mecca, starts a fundamentalist movement, tells the Bengalis that they are degraded and that the answer to their difficulties lies in shunning un-Islamic practices and adhering to the purity of the Koran

1828Romania breaks free of Islamic rule.[cxiv]

1832 Slaves in Manchester, Jamaica, led by a slave named Muhammad Kaba, mount a Jihad against their masters.They are inspired by the writings on Jihad that justified the Sokoto Jihad in Nigeria[cxv]

1840The Sultan of Zanzibar takes control of Mombassa.[cxvi]

1857The Sultan of Zanzibar lends a boat to the English explorers Burke and Speke.Five months later they make it 600 miles inland and enter Tabora, a settlement founded by Arabs as a slave-trading depot.[cxvii]This is by no means the only Arab slave-trading town founded deep in the interior of Africa by Arab slave traders.Ujiji, on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was another.

1865David Livingstone sees the slaughter of between 300 and 400 villagers by slave traders and writes a vivid letter about it that creates outrage in Britain and inspires the British to stop the slave-raiding and slave-trading controlled from Zanzibar.[cxviii], [cxix]

1871 British Parliament, outraged by Stanley’s letter, threatens a naval blockade of Zanzibar and forces the Sulta to close his slave market.[cxx]

1874-1876 The Sultan of Somalia, Sultan Dhahar, attacks Christian Abyssinia and expels the Christians of Galgala, destroying their churches[cxxi], [cxxii]

1878Daghestan, Georgia and Armenia are taken from Islamic hands,[cxxiii] presumably by Russians.Russians also take Bessarabia from Islamic hands after a Moslem rule of 600 years.[cxxiv]

1896 Italy is hungry for East African territory.The Italian Consul to Zanzibar mounts a 17-man expedition to feel out the Shebelle River in Somalia.The group is attacked by Somali tribesment and wiped out.Only three of seventeen Italians manage to return to the Consulate.[cxxv]

1897 the Italians try again and form “the Benadir Company” to control areas of Somalia.It fails in 1905. [cxxvi]

c. 1955Moslems from Saudi Arabia and other parts of the worldwide Ummah protest the fact that the Moslem population of the Philippines has second-class status in a Christian-dominated country and pour oil dollars into the scholarships for Islamic students to study in Saudi Arabia, into the establishment of Saudi-style schools, into attendance by Philippine Moslems of international Islamic conferences, and into armaments for the Philippine’s Moslems.[cxxvii]

1960Encouraged by the Saudis and by other Arab countries, the Moslems of the Philippines demand “independence”.

1968Founding of The Moro National Liberation Front in the Philippines and the beginning of a battle for Moslem “autonomy” that would leave 50,000 dead, and would be backed by Libya and Iran.[cxxviii]

1976Pakistan’s Zulfikar Ali Bhutto announces his plan to build an ‘Islamic Bomb’, “a bomb for defense of all Islamic Countries.”[cxxix]

1985 Dr. Ali Mohammed Naqvi publishes a book destined to become an Internet hit, Islam and Nationalism.In it, Naqvi outlines a philosophy of world conquest. He writes, “Nationalism divides human society into limited and independent units…But Islam addresses all of mankind as a single unit. Its system is not for a nation, but for the whole human society… It is the duty of Muslims to fight unyieldingly…until the school of God comes to dominate over the personal, social, political, economic, intellectual and religious life of man.”

c. 1983 Abdul Qadeer Khan, future father of “The Islamic Bomb”, manages to snag the complete design for a Chinese nuclear device 34 inches in diameter, the perfect size for a missile warhead.Khan obtains detailed drawings of all of the warhead’s 100 or so parts.[cxxx]

1990The Autonomous Region Of Muslim Mindanao—including Tawitawl and Jolo– declared in the second largest island of the Philippines.[cxxxi]

1990In July, the Jama’at al Muslimeen under the control of Imam Yasin Abu Bakr attempts a violent coup in Trinidad and Tobago to establish a Moslem extremist state[cxxxii].Jama’at al Muslimeen is still in business today.

1990-2005Hamas, Hezbollah, al-Qaeda, El Gamma Iji, and Islamic Jihad, set up bases in Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil, making converts and sending drug money to the middle east to finance their Jihads[cxxxiii]

1994France’s Direction de Construction Naval International agrees to sell Pakistan the technology for a superstealth submarine capable of carrying sixteen cruise missiles with nuclear warheads.The sub, the Agosta 90B, has a range of 10,000 nautical miles…the distance to Europe and North America.

1996-2005Westerners first read the word “madrassa” when this form of extremist, Saudi-backed religious school educates and graduates the leaders of Afghanistan’s Taleban.Later it turns out that the Saudis have established these “suicide bomber factories” in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Russia,the Balkans, Western Europe, and North America.[cxxxiv], [cxxxv]It also turns out that the Jamia Binoria society of madrassas in Karachi, Pakistan, is attracting foreign students from 30 countries, including the US, and educating them in Saudi-style Wahabi extremism.[cxxxvi]

1997April 13.Little-Brown in London tells Paul Fregosi it won’t print his book about Islam’s Jihad against Europe because of Islamic censorship pressures.

1998First test of the Islamic Bomb—Pakistan’s nuclear warhead.

1998Pakistan’s first Agosta 90b submarine is launched.

1999The Philippine Moro National Liberation Front buys 10,000 M16 automatic rifles and grenades from North Korean dealer Lim Kyu-do.It also puts a down payment on North Korean mini-submarines.[cxxxvii]

1999September 4, “a car bomb detonated outside an apartment building housing Russian soldiers in the city of Buinaksk, in the province of Dagestan. 64 people were killed and dozens of others were wounded. Russia blamed Chechen separatists, who would days later invade the province from neighboring Chechnya.”[cxxxviii]

1999September 8, “300 kg to 400 kg of explosives detonated on the ground floor of an apartment building in southeast Moscow. The nine-story building was destroyed, killing 94 people inside and wounded 150 others. 108 apartments were destroyed. A caller to a Russian news agency said the blast was a response to recent Russian bombing of Chechen and Dagestan villages in response to the invasion of Dagestan.” [cxxxix]

1999 September 13, “was supposed to be a day of mourning for the victims of the previous bomb attacks. But on that day, a large bomb exploded at an apartment on Kashirskoye Highway in southern Moscow. The eight-story building was flattened, littering the street with debris and throwing some concrete hundreds of yards away. In all, 118 people died and 200 were wounded.”..” Boris Yeltsin declared a war against the “illegal military units” in Chechnya” [cxl]

1999 September 16 truck bomb “outside a nine-story apartment complex in the southern Russian city of Volgodonsk, killing 17 people.” [cxli]

2000 Islamic militants mount an intense bombing campaign in South Africa, bombing, among others, the provincial premier of Cape Town, who escaped the blast of a bomb strapped to a tree between a mosque and a community center, bombing police stations, attacking a Planet Hollywood restaurant, and injuring 48 people with a bomb in a packed pizza parlor in Cape Town.[cxlii]

2001 In response to America’s attacks in Afghanistan, Moslems activists in South Africa urge their followers to take up arms and join the jihad between Islam and the “satanic, infidel West”[cxliii], [cxliv]

2001 May 5. Muslim militants converge on the Moluccas, the spice islands of Indonesia, to defend Moslems against “a Christian conspiracy”.Thousands are killed.[cxlv]

2001 March 22Anti-slavery groups report that there are 27 million modern slaves “From Khartoum to Calcutta, from Brazil to Bangladesh”.Most seem to be in Islamic countries.[cxlvi]

2002 In Al Qaeda’s online magazine Al-Ansar, Seif Al-Din Al-Ansari writes, “The elements of the collapse of Western civilization are proliferating…, these infidel states are no more than a handful of creatures on the speck of dust called Planet Earth….Allah told us of the certainty of the annihilation of the infidels…by means of the Muslim group, which would, in accordance with the Islamic commandment…torture them…The question now on the agenda is, how is the torture Allah wants done at our hands to be carried out?”[cxlvii]

2002 Influential Sunni television star and cleric Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi joins other Sheiks in issuing a fatwa that declares, “… The Prophet Muhammad was asked: ‘What city will be conquered first, Constantinople or Romiyya?’ He answered: ‘The city of Heracles will be conquered first’ – that is, Constantinople… Romiyya is the city called today ‘Rome,’ the capital of Italy. The city of Heracles [later to become Constantinople] was conquered by the young 23-year-old Ottoman Muhammad bin Morad, known in history as Muhammad the Conqueror, in 1453. The other city, Romiyya, remains, and we hope and believe [that it too will be conquered]. …This means that Islam will return to Europe as a conqueror and victor, after being expelled from it twice – once from the South, from Andalusia, and a second time from the East, when it knocked several times on the door of Athens.”[cxlviii]

2002Pakistan launches its first home-made Agosta 90B nuclear missile-carrying sub,built with French technology in the Karachi shipyard by Pakistani engineers and craftsmen.

2003Captain Iftikhar Riaz Qureshi, commander of both of Pakistan’s Agosta 90b nuclear-capable subs, writes in the Pakistani Daily Mail that the subs are meant for “second strike capability”.In other words, they were purchased specifically to carry nuclear weapons.[cxlix]Qureshi also explains that Pakistan’s ability to build and to enhance Agosta 90bs in its own shipyards will allow its construction program “construction program to fulfill our needs and the needs of our friends”.And he announces that Pakistan’s third Agosta 90b—its second constructed in the Karachi Naval Shipyard–will be launched “within the next three years”.

2003June 5Two female suicide bombers detonate themselves at a rock concert near Moscow killing 14.

2003October 23. Roughly 1,000 audience members are taken hostage when mahahedin chanting, “We love death more than you love life” take over an entire Moscow theater—the Dubrovka. 130 die.

2003Police in the Indian hill resort of Kud arrest a young driver and his girlfriend—couriers carrying $100,000 in American donations to finance a never-ending Jihad in Kashmir.[cl]

2003 The US seizes “the BBC China, a freighter bearing centrifuge parts made in Malaysia, along with other products of Dr. [A.Q.] Khan’s [nuclear] network, all bound for Libya.”Libya fesses up and hands over its nuclear skunk works.[cli]

2003Dr. A.Q. Khan, father of the Islamic Bomb and a national hero in Pakistan, is put under house arrest.An initial spate of information indicates that Khan has been selling nuclear technology he acquired in Europe to North Korea and Libya and shipping materials through Malaysia.

2004American intelligence officials are shocked to discover that Khan’s nuclear network goes much farther than they thought.In fact, it has “tendrils…in more than 30 countries” including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates.Credible reports say that during his trip to Afghanistan, Khan met face-to-face with Osama bin Laden.Intelligence officials wonder, “what other countries, or nonstate groups, beyond Libya, Iran and North Korea, received what one Bush administration official called Dr. Khan’s ‘nuclear starter kit’”–buy a hundred million dollars worth of nuclear equipment and Khan throws in the design for a thoroughly-tested nuclear warhead for free. The suspected list of customers includes Syria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Algeria, Kuwait, Myanmar and Abu Dhabi.

2004 Three highly articulate, intelligent, British-born Moslems who were part of a crowd shouting, “Make way for Islam, we want Islam”, tell a CNN interviewer that their Islam, “Is not just a hatred for America it is a hatred for the whole of western philosophy and western civilization, freedom, democracy, human rights, international law, all of these fake concepts that have been passed to us and behind that we have been oppressed, it is a hatred of all of this.”[clii]

2004 Iranian Revolutionary Guards intelligence theoretician Hassan Abbassia tapes a speech discussing an Iranian “strategy drawn up for the destruction of Anglo-Saxon civilization.” He explains that, “There are 29 sensitive sites in the U.S. and in the West. We have already spied on these sites and we know how we are going to attack them.”[cliii]

2004 The ancient Islamic imperative to holy war is still alive in Southeast Asia. Sunanda K. Datta-Ray, a former editor of The Statesman in India, writes that, “The rebels in Southeast Asia’s three main trouble spots – southern Thailand, the southern Philippines and Indonesia‘s Aceh Province – are Malay Muslims, … Muslims with ancient grievances. …the disturbances look like part of a global Muslim upsurge. The Moro Liberation Front in the Philippines speaks for Mindanao, whose 34 sultanates dated back to the 15th century and once extended to northern Borneo. They fought the Spanish for 300 years and resisted the Americans after 1899.” [cliv]

2004A long-term jihad in Central Asia and Russia drags on with the siege of a school in Beslan, the terrorist downing of two Russian airliners—94 passengers killed. and a suicide bombing in Moscow.[clv]

2004-2005Arab Janjaweed tribesmen prey on the black Islamic population of their own country—the Shariah-run nation of Sudan.[clvi] “Janjaweed, Arab militias armed by the government, have carried out ethnic cleansing, systematic rape”[clvii] and enslavement.[clviii], [clix]

2004 In Amsterdam, a 26-year-old Dutch Moroccan shoots filmmaker Theo Van Gogh while Van Gogh is bicycling.He slashes Van Gogh’s throat, repeatedly stabs the body, then drives a knife to the hilt into the corpse, using it to pin down a five-page “open letter” that predicts the downfall of the “infidel enemies of Islam” and stating, “I know definitely that you, Oh America, will go down. I know definitely that you, Oh Europe, will go down. I know definitely that you, Oh Netherlands, will go down.”[clx]

2004March 11 thirteen bombs on commuter trains triggered to go off simultaneously at height of Madrid rush hour.Ten go off.Responsibility is claimed by al Qaeda in Europe.

2004 In March, British arrest 8 Moslems in Leeds 17-32 years old with large amounts of ammonium nitrate—possibly an attack in the planning stage.

2004 January 4 30 armed mujahedin storm military armory and steal 380 M-16s in Narathiwat, Southern Thailand.Meanwhile 18 schools are set afire.[clxi]

2004 April 28.112 killed when machete armed teenage mujahedin wearing red headbands and black t-shirts with Islamic slogans attack a dozen police posts in 3 provinces in Southern Thailand.[clxii]Their goal: to steal guns.Battle goes on for 8 hours.“they have shown … that they are willing to die, simply to fight against Buddhist officials…” said Sunai Phasuk, a Bangkok political analyst.”They fought with knives and swords, fully understanding that the police will be ready and waiting for them with M-16 rifles.”[clxiii]

2004-2005The jihad in Southern Thailand kills 860 in 18 months.The area was once the Sultanate of Pattani and has its own language.Vendors sell CDs of beheadings with titles like “Jihad in Chechnya 2000”.Local beheadings run rampant. Buddhist monks slashed to death & temples bombed. Grocers are threatened for selling pork.

2005February 14 With assassination of Lebanon’s former prime minister and culture hero Rifik Hariri and Iraqi elections January 30, 2005, that produce a surprisingly huge turnout, pro-democracy demonstrations and movements break out in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Kuwait, Yemen, and Bahrain.George Bush’s pro-democracy thrust is cited in nearly every Islamic publication that covers the story.But does democracy reduce war?The War of 1812 took place between two democracies, the US and England.

2005The Islamic website Islamic World—the Official Website of the Khilafah Institute, declares, “It is our firm belief that the unique social and historical conditions of our time, combined with new knowledge in the fields of science and technology, make it not only possible but highly likely that within a generation or so we will live in a fully and truly Islamic World.”

2005 The forces of Al-Qaeda in Europe work to make those words a reality by bombing rush hour commuter trains and one bus in England.

2005July 7, London 4 bombings—3 in subways & 1 on a double-decker bus kill 54 people.One suspected bomber was born in Jamaica and grew up in England.Another is a Cairo-born student who studied biochemistry and chemical engineering at the undergraduate and graduate level in the US. Several kilos of ammonium nitrate are found in one ofhis two apartments—a “bomb factory” in Leeds.One suspect, Hasib Hussain is 18 yrs old, comes from a modest neighborhood in Leeds, was a cricket and soccer player, but was taken off the college track by his teachers and the cricket pitch on which he played with his team was shut down.He turned to Islam. Two bombers have made trips to Pakistan that apparently changed their lives.Another, 22-year-old Shahzad Tanweer, was born in Bradford, England, came from an upper middle-class family that owned a chip shop, was proud to be British, played cricket the week before the attack, but went to Pakistan to learn the Koran by heart and may have visited a militant Islamic private school for the wealthy and the planner of a Pakistani grenade attack that killed five.The Secret Organization Group of Al Qaeda of Jihad Organization in Europe claims credit.[clxiv]

2005 July 1460 muhahedin attack the regional capital of Yala in Thailand, killing 2, injuring 22, plunging city into darkness by targeting electrical transformers, a restaurant, 2 convenience stores, a hotel, and the railway station. With fire bombs, explosives, and guns.A few days earlier a school headmistress is murdered & 2 Buddhist women are beheaded.


[i] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[ii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[iii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[iv] Qur’an (8 : 67) cited in Retrieved September 14, 2004, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.geocities.com/badr_313/battle.htm This work is an extract of the Second Volume of English Translation of Sirat-un-Nabi originally written in Urdu by the late ‘Allama Shibli Nu’mani, a well-known Muslim historian who requires no commendation.His famous work Sirat-un-Nabi also hardly stands in need of any introduction. The book Sirut-un-Nabi is translated by Mr. Budayuni who has the full command of both the languages, Urdu as well as English.The Battle of Badr.

[v] Retrieved July 16, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.sunnahonline.com/ilm/seerah/0005.htm Seerah of the Final Messenger of Allaah: The Story of the Prisoners of the Battle of Badr Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

[vi] “The Battle of Badr”. Al-Islam.org. Retrieved July 16, 2005, from the World Wide Web

www.al-islam.org/history/history/badr.html

[vii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[viii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[ix] Our society could never be an Islamic one unless we sincerely tread the footsteps of Allah’s final Messenger to mankind, heed his sayings, observe his glorious actions and attitudes, and most important of all follow them, as the faithful among his companions did.

In short, Allah the most Glorious enjoins upon us to take the Prophet’s behavior as an example, because he guides us to virtue and righteousness:

“Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much.” Holy Qur’an (33: 21)Retrieved October 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web

http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/infallible1e.asp

Islamic Occasions Network

21 October 2004

This Website is Designed by Akramulla Syed Last Updated: 01 September 2004

 

[x] 57. O ye who believe! take not for friends and protectors those who take yourreligion for a mockery or sport whether among those who received theScripture before you or among those who reject faith; but fear ye Allah ifye have Faith (indeed).

58. When ye proclaim your call to prayer they take it (but) as mockery andsport; that is because they are a people without understanding.

59. Say: “O People of the Book! do ye disapprove of us for no other reason thanthat we believe in Allah and the revelation that hath come to us and thatwhich came before (us) and (perhaps) that most of you are rebellious anddisobedient?”

60. Say: “Shall I point out to you something much worse than this (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah?Those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine thosewho worshipped Evil; these are (many times) worse in rank and far moreastray from the even Path!

61. When they come to thee they say: “We believe”: but in fact they enter with a mind against Faith and they go out with the same: but Allah knoweth fullyall that they hide.

62. Many of them dost thou see racing each other in sin and rancor and theireating of things forbidden.Evil indeed are the things that they do.

63. Why do not the Rabbis and the doctors of laws forbid them from their (habitof) uttering sinful words and eating things forbidden?Evil indeed aretheir works. Quran, Al‑Maida

[xi] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xii] Retrieved September 14, 2004, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.derafsh-kaviyani.com/english/quraiza.html Copyright @1998 – @2004 Derafsh Kaviyani. All Rights Reserved.Massacre of Bani QuraizaThe verse 33:26 confirms that actually Muhammad did slew some of the Bani Quraiza.But the verse does not talk about the details of that slaughter. The details of this event can be found in the hadith such as these: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 448: Narrated ‘Aisha:When the Prophet returned from the (battle) of Al-Khandaq (i.e. Trench) and laid down his arms and took a bath Gabriel came to him while he (i.e. Gabriel) was shaking the dust off his head, and said, “You have laid down the arms?” By Allah, I have not laid them down. Go out to them (to attack them).” The Prophet said, “Where?” Gabriel pointed towards Bani Quraiza. So Allah’s Apostle went to them (i.e. Banu Quraiza) (i.e. besieged them). They then surrendered to the Prophet’s judgment but he directed them to Sad to give his verdict concerning them. Sad said, “I give my judgment that their warriors should be killed, their women and children should be taken as captives, and their properties distributed.

[xiii] Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 443It is not clear why the Archangel needed Muslim’s help to wipe out the Jews

[xiv] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xv] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xvi] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xvii] http://al-islam.org/restatement/30.htm. Restatement of History of Islam The Battle of Mootah

Retrieved from the World Wide Web June 29, 2004

[xviii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xix] His faithful and equally brave cousin Imam Ali (a.s.), who was the standard bearer in several decisive battles and who while defending Islam and the Prophet, sent many obstinate bullies of ignorant Arabia to the eternal fire, describes the Messenger’s bravery as follows:

 

“You have beheld me on the day of Badr, all of us took refuge with the Prophet (s.a.w.), and he was the nearest one to the enemy ranks. He was on that day, the bravest of us all.”Retrieved October 21, 2004 , from the World Wide Web

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[xx] Spelled Hunain by Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xxi]http://al-islam.org/restatement/33.htm
gives many different reflections on the battle of Hunayn

Essentially the last military campaign Muhammed personally led.
In the year 630.
The Beduins were going to attack mecca, Muhammed didn’t want a battle
to take place in meca so he lead the army out a ways to Hunayn.
k was an expedition because no fighting actually went on)
It was the largest army as of that time.  12,000.

They were ambushed by a force a third thier size.  Routed muhammed’s
army, but muhammed and some other small group stayed back and kept
calling them back till they regrouped.  But by that time the opposing
army had had time for an orderly retreat so no real victory so
sometimes considered a loss.

[xxii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xxiii] Sarwat Saulat, The Life of The Prophet, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1983.

[xxv]In 600 Iraq was a province of the Persian Sasanian empire, to which it had belonged for three centuries. It was probably the most populous and wealthy area in the Middle East, and the intensive irrigation agriculture of the lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers and of tributary streams such as the Diyala and Karun formed the main resource base of the Sasanian monarchy. …The first conflict between local Bedouin tribes and Sasanian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abu ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi was routed by the Persians. In 637 a much larger Muslim force under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyyah and moved on to sack Ctesiphon. By the end of the following year (638), the Muslims had conquered almost all of Iraq, and the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III, had fled to Iran, where he was killed in 651. The first conflict between local Bedouin tribes and Sasanian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abu ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi was routed by the Persians. In 637 a much larger Muslim force under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyyah and moved on to sack Ctesiphon. By the end of the following year (638), the Muslims had conquered almost all of Iraq, and the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III, had fled to Iran, where he was killed in 651. To cite this page:

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[xxvi]In 600 Iraq was a province of the Persian Sasanian empire, to which it had belonged for three centuries. It was probably the most populous and wealthy area in the Middle East, and the intensive irrigation agriculture of the lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers and of tributary streams such as the Diyala and Karun formed the main resource base of the Sasanian monarchy. …The first conflict between local Bedouin tribes and Sasanian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abu ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi was routed by the Persians. In 637 a much larger Muslim force under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyyah and moved on to sack Ctesiphon. By the end of the following year (638), the Muslims had conquered almost all of Iraq, and the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III, had fled to Iran, where he was killed in 651. The first conflict between local Bedouin tribes and Sasanian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abu ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi was routed by the Persians. In 637 a much larger Muslim force under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyyah and moved on to sack Ctesiphon. By the end of the following year (638), the Muslims had conquered almost all of Iraq, and the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III, had fled to Iran, where he was killed in 651. To cite this page:

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[xxviii] Nahavand, Battle of Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 29, 2004, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9054672> Nahavand, Battle ofEncyclopædia Britannica Article Page1of1 Battle of NahavandNahavand also spelledNahawand , orNehavend(AD 642), military clash in Iran between Arab and Sasanian forces that was a major turning point in Iranian history. The battle ended in disastrous defeat for the Sasanian armies and paved the way for the Arab conquest, which resulted in the Islamization of Iran.At Nahavand some 30,000 Arab troops, under the command of Nu’man, attacked a Sasanian army alleged to number 150,000 men. The Sasanian troops, commanded by Firuzan, were entrenched in a strong fortified position. After an indecisive skirmish, Nu’man pretended to be defeated and withdrew from the battlefield. Firuzan then abandoned his position and pursued his foe. The pursuit proved to be a major tactical error because the Sasanians were forced to fight on unfavourable ground; the Sasanian army, caught between two mountain defiles, was massacred by the Arabs. Both Nu’man and Firuzan died in the battle, and Iranian casualties were said to number 100,000.After the battle the Arabs consolidated their position, and by 651, with the death of Yazdegerd III, the last Sasanian emperor, their conquest of Iran was completed.

[xxix] An Arab victory at Al-Qadisiyyah in 636/637 was followed by the sack of the Sasanian winter capital at Ctesiphon on the Tigris. The Battle of Nahavand in 642 completed the Sasanids’ vanquishment. Iran

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History > The advent of Islam (640–829)

The Arab invasion of Iran made a break with the past that affected not only Iran but all of western Asia and resulted in the assimilation of peoples who shaped and vitalized Muslim culture. (See also Islamic world.) The Prophet Muhammad had made Medina, his adopted city, and Mecca, his birthplace, centres of an Arabian movement that Muslim Arabs developed into a world movement through the conquest of Iranian and Byzantine territories. Neither Sasanian Iran nor the Byzantine Empire had been unfamiliar to those Arabs who were the former’s Lakhmid and the latter’s Ghassanid vassals, the frontier guardians of the two empires against fellow Arabs who roamed deeper in the Arabian Desert. Also, Meccan and Medinese Arabs had established commercial connections with the Byzantines and Sasanids. The immunity of Mecca’s ancient sanctuary, the Ka’bah, against outlawry and outrage had promoted this city’s commercial importance. The Ka’bah was cleansed of idols by Muhammad, who had himself once been engaged in commerce. He made it the sanctuary of a monotheistic faith whose sacred writings were filled with the injunctions and prohibitions needed by a business community for secure and stable trading.

Arab tribalism beyond urban fringes was less easily broken than idols. It was embedded in the desert sparsity that led to warfare and carefully counting a tribe’s male offspring. After Mecca and Medina had become Muslim, it was essential that the Muslims win the desert Arabs’ allegiance in order to secure the routes they depended on for trade and communication. In the process of doing this, wars over water holes, scanty pastures, men-at-arms, and camels were enlarged into international campaigns of expansion.

The vulnerability of Sasanian Iran assisted the expansionist process. In 623 the Byzantine emperor Heraclius reversed Persian successes over Roman arms—namely, by capturing Jerusalem in 614 and winning at Chalcedon in 617. His victim, Khosrow Parviz, died in 628 and left Iran prey to a succession of puppet rulers who were frequently deposed by a combination of nobles and Zoroastrian clergy. Thus, when Yazdegerd III, Iran’s last Sasanid and Zoroastrian sovereign, came to the throne in 632, the year of Muhammad’s death, he inherited an empire weakened by Byzantine wars and internal dissension.

The former Arab vassals on the empire’s southwestern border realized that their moment had arrived, but their raids into Sasanian territory were quickly taken up by Muhammad’s caliphs, or deputies, at Medina—Abu Bakr and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab—to become a Muslim, pan-Arab attack on Iran.

An Arab victory at Al-Qadisiyyah in 636/637 was followed by the sack of the Sasanian winter capital at Ctesiphon on the Tigris. The Battle of Nahavand in 642 completed the Sasanids’ vanquishment. Yazdegerd fled to the empire’s northeastern outpost, Merv, whose marzban, or march lord, Mahuyeh, was soured by Yazdegerd’s imperious and expensive demands. Mahuyeh turned against his emperor and defeated him with the help of Hephthalites from Badghis. The Hephthalites, an independent border power, had troubled the Sasanids since at least 590, when they had sided with Bahram Chubin, Khosrow Parviz’s rebel general. A miller near Merv murdered the fugitive Yazdegerd for his purse.

The Sasanids’ end was ignominious, but it was not the end of Iran. Rather, it marked a new beginning. Within two centuries Iranian civilization was revived with a cultural amalgam, with patterns of art and thought, with attitudes and a sophistication that were indebted to its pre-Islamic Iranian heritage—a heritage changed but also stirred into fresh life by the Arab Muslim conquest.

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[xxx] Retrieved December 29, 2004, from the World Wide Web

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

[xxxi] The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ .Islamic armies defeated the Sasanids in 642 at the Battle of Nahavand (near modern Hamadan, Iran) and advanced into the Afghan area, but they were unable to hold the territory; cities submitted, only to rise in revolt, and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies had passed. The 9th and 10th centuries witnessed the rise of numerous local Islamic dynasties.Afghanistan Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 29, 2004, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
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[xxxii] Rome captured Tripolitania in 46 b.c., and in the following centuries, as Roman rule was extended far into the south, the region prospered as a trade and agricultural center. In a.d. 435, Tripolitania fell to the Vandals, and it was captured by the Byzantines a century later. In the 7th cent. the Arabs gained control of Tripolitania, and from the 9th to the 11th cent. numerous Arabs settled there.The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products N.V. All rights reserved.

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From the Islamic conquest to 1830

After completing the conquest of Egypt in 642 the Arabs started to raid the territory to its west inhabited by the Berbers, which they called Bilad al-Maghrib (“Lands of Sunset”), or simply the Maghrib. In 705 this region became a province of the Muslim empire then ruled from Damascus by the Umayyad caliphs (661–750). The Arab Muslim conquerors left a much more durable impact on the culture of the Maghrib than did the region’s conquerors before and after them. By the 11th century the Berbers had become Islamized and in part also Arabized. Indigenous Christian communities ceased to exist in the region, which before the Arab conquest had constituted an important part of the Christian world. The Islamization of the Berbers was a consequence of the Arab conquest, although they were neither forcibly converted to Islam nor systematically missionized by their conquerors. Largely because its teachings became an ideology through which the Berbers justified both their rebellion against the caliphs and their support of rulers who rejected caliphal authority, Islam gained wide appeal and spread rapidly among these fiercely independent peoples.

Arab raids to the west of Egypt concentrated at first on the area of Cyrenaica in present-day Libya. Tunisia was raided several times after 647, but no attempt was made to establish Arab rule there before 670. Conflicts among the Muslim leaders, especially after the assassination of the third caliph ‘Uthman in 656, hindered Muslim territorial expansion. Only after the Umayyads had consolidated their authority as a caliphal dynasty in the 660s and had come to view the conquest of the Maghrib in the context of their confrontation with the Byzantine Empire was the systematic conquest of the Maghrib undertaken. ‘Uqbah ibn Nafi’ (Sidi Okba) commanded the Arab army that occupied Tunisia in 670. Before his recall in 674 ‘Uqbah founded the town of Al-Qayrawan (Kairouan), which became the first centre of Arab administration in the Maghrib.

When the conquest of the Maghrib west of Tunisia was initiated by ‘Uqbah’s successor, Abu al-Muhajir Dinar al-Ansari, the Arabs had to fight semisettled Berber communities that had developed some tradition of centralized political authority. In the course of his campaign, Abu al-Muhajir Dinar prevailed upon the Berber “king” Kusaylah to become Muslim. From his base in Tlemcen, Kusaylah dominated a confederation of the Awraba tribes living between the western Aurès Mountains and the area of present-day Fès. Since Kusaylah’s profession of Islam implied his recognition of caliphal authority, it served as a basis for coexistence between him and the Arabs. However, when ‘Uqbah was reinstated as commander of the Arab army in the Maghrib in 681, he insisted on imposing direct Arab rule over the whole region. In 682 he led his troops across Algeria and northern Morocco, reaching the Atlantic Ocean and penetrating south to the areas of Sus (Sous) and Drâa in southern Morocco. On his way back to Al-Qayrawan, ‘Uqbah was attacked near Biskra in present-day Algeria on orders from Kusaylah by Berbers supported by Byzantine contingents. Through his death in this battle and his extended campaign, ‘Uqbah became the legendary hero of the Muslim conquest of the Maghrib.

By the 680s the Arabs had gone too far in the conquest of the Maghrib to be willing to accept defeat at the hands of a Berber leader, albeit one professing Islam. Two large armies had to be sent from Egypt, however, before organized Berber resistance could be suppressed. The first, commanded by Zuhayr ibn Qays al-Balawi, reoccupied Al-Qayrawan, then pursued Kusaylah westward to Mams, where he was defeated and killed. The dates of these operations are uncertain, but they must have occurred before 688 when Zuhayr ibn Qays himself was killed in an attack on Byzantine positions in Cyrenaica. The second Arab army, commanded by Hassan ibn an-Nu’man, was dispatched from Egypt in 693. It faced stiff resistance in the eastern Aurès Mountains from the Jawara Berbers, who were commanded by a woman whom the Arabs referred to as Kahinah (al-Kahina; “the Priestess”). After Kahinah was defeated in 698, Ibn an-Nu’man occupied Carthage, the centre of Byzantine administration in Tunisia, and began the construction of the town of Tunis nearby. These successes and Arab naval supremacy in the Mediterranean forced the Byzantines to evacuate their remaining positions on the Maghribi coast. Consequently, under Ibn an-Nu’man’s successor, Musa ibn Nusayr, the Maghrib was made into a province of the Umayyad Caliphate in 705 known as the wilayah of Ifriqiyah, thus separating it from the wilayah of Egypt, to which it had been administratively attached until that time.

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Roman Cyrenaica From the Islamic conquest to 1830 Khariji Berber resistance to Arab rule

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[xxxiii] Retrieved January 1, 2005, from the World Wide Web

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DAHIA-AL KAHINA

QUEEN KAHINA

She fought against the Arab incursion in North Africa where under her leadership Africans fought back fiercely and drove the Arab army northward into Tripolitania. Queen Kahina was of the Hebrew faith and she never abandoned her religion. Her opposition to the Arab incursion was purely nationalistic, since she favored neither Christians nor Moslems. Her death in 705 A.D by Hassen-ben-Numam ended one of the most violet attempts to save Africa for the Africans. She prevented Islam’s southward spread into the Western Sudan. After her death the Arabs began to change their strategy in advancing their faith and their power in Africa. The resistance to the southward spread of Islam was so great in some areas that some of the wives of African kings committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the Berbers and Arabs who showed no mercy to the people who would not be converted to Islam

[xxxiv] During the medieval period (8th–13th cent.) several independent kingdoms, notably the Palas of Bihar and Bengal, the Sen, the Ahoms of Assam, a later Chola empire at Tanjore, and a second Chalukya dynasty in the Deccan, waxed powerful. In NW India, beyond the reach of the medieval dynasties, the Rajputs had grown strong and were able to resist the rising forces of Islam. Islam was first brought to Sind, W India, in the 8th cent. by seafaring Arab traders; by the 10th cent. Muslim armies from the north were raiding India. From 999 to 1026, Mahmud of Ghazna several times breached Rajput defenses and plundered India.

In the 11th and 12th cent. Ghaznavid power waned, to be replaced c.1150 by that of the Turkic principality of Ghor. In 1192 the legions of Ghor defeated the forces of Prithivi Raj, and the Delhi Sultanate, the first Muslim kingdom in India, was established. The sultanate eventually reduced to vassalage almost every independent kingdom on the subcontinent, except that of Kashmir and the remote kingdoms of the south. The task of ruling such a vast territory proved impossible; difficulties in the south with the state of Vijayanagar, the great Hindu kingdom, and the capture (1398) of the city of Delhi by Timur finally brought the sultanate to an end.

The Muslim kingdoms that succeeded it were defeated by a Turkic invader from Afghanistan, Babur, a remote descendant of Timur, who, after the battle of Panipat in 1526, founded the Mughal empire. The empire was consolidated by Akbar and reached its greatest territorial extent, the control of almost all of India, under Aurangzeb (ruled 1659–1707). Under the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire a large Muslim following grew and a new culture evolved in India (see Mughal art and architecture); Islam, however, never supplanted Hinduism as the faith of the majority.

[xxxvi] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web“Pakistan” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ The northwest of the Indian subcontinent, which now constitutes Pakistan, lies athwart the historic invasion routes through the Khyber, Gumal, and Bolan passes from central Asia to the heartland of India, and for thousands of years invaders and adventurers swept down upon the settlements there. The Indus valley civilization, which flourished until c.1500 B.C., was one of the region’s earliest civilizations. The Aryans, who surpassed the Indus, were followed by the Persians of the Achaemenid empire, who by c.500 B.C. reached the Indus River. Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian empire, invaded the Punjab in 326 B.C. The Seleucid empire, heir to Alexander’s Indian conquest, was checked by the Mauryas, who by 305 B.C. occupied the Indus plain and much of Afghanistan.After the fall of the Mauryas (2d cent. B.C.) the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom rose to power, but was in turn overrun (c.97 B.C.) by Scythian nomads called Saka and then by the Parthians (c.A.D. 7). The Parthians, of Persian stock, were replaced by the Kushans; the Kushan Kanishka ruled (2d cent. A.D.) all of what is now Pakistan from his capital at Peshawar. In 712, the Muslim Arabs appeared in force and conquered Sind, and by 900 they controlled most of NW India. They were followed by the Ghaznavid and Ghorid Turks. The first Turki invaders reached Bengal c.1200 and an important Muslim center was established there, principally through conversion of the Hindus. Although the northeast of the Indian subcontinent (now Bangladesh) remained, with interruptions, part of a united Mughal empire in India from the early 16th cent. to 1857, the northwest changed hands many times before it became (1857) part of imperial British India. It was overrun by Persians in the late 1730s; by the Afghans, who held Sind and the Punjab during the latter half of the 18th cent.; and by the Sikhs, who rose to power in the Punjab under Ranjit Singh (1780–1839).

[xxxvii] David Nicolle, illustrated by Angus McBride.Armies of the Muslim Conquest. London: Osprey Publishing, 1993. p. 4.

 

[xxxviii] Tariq Bin Ziyada newly converted Berber slave wsa a lieutenant of Musa bin Nusair, the Muslim Viceroy of Africa. The Berber slave was destined to be the conqueror of Spain, the biggest Muslim territory in Europe

From - http://www.renaissance.com.pk/marletf95.html

 

 

[xlii] Charles Martel (märtĕl’) [O.Fr.,=Charles the Hammer], 688?–741, Frankish ruler, illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne. After the death of his father (714) he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin’s widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and became mayor of the palace. He subsequently subdued the W Frankish kingdom of Neustria and began the reconquest of Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Muslims at the battle of Tours (732–33) and began the military campaigns that reestablished the Franks as the rulers of Gaul. Although he never assumed the title of king, he divided the Frankish lands, like a king, between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.

——————————————————————————–

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

[xliii] It is believed that Islam first entered Southeast Asia through Aceh in the 8th century. In the 18th century, the Islamic kingdom of Aceh was involved in a power struggle between British and Dutch colonial interests. Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aceh

 

[xliv] Retrieved January 1, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/China/Talas.CP.htmlBattle of Talas River 751 Back to “First Age of Islamic Expansion” Chronology Back to “T’ang Dynasty” Chronology Back To “Abbasid Caliphate” ChronologyFor much of the early 700s, the Chinese Empire, under the T’ang dynasty, was successful in its foreign affairs. They recovered crucial lands they had previously lost and stabilized the Tibetan frontier. They secured trade routes through central Asia and contained threats from the Khitan and Hsi peoples. In the late 740s, Chinese troops claimed lordship over Kabul and Kashmir of India. But their string of victorious campaigns could not last forever, as China discovered at Talas River in 751.Islam’s widespread emergence coupled with China’s over-expansion, led to the Battle at Talas River, the only battle between Arab Muslim forces and the army of the Chinese Empire. The Chinese troops were led by Kao Hsien-chih, who had been successful in battles in Gilgit and in the Farghana region. But his success did not carry over, as the Muslim armies were victorious. The Muslims chose not to pursue the Chinese into central Asia.While the battle in itself was of minor importance, its ramifications on the future were very significant. The Arabs were put in a position to extend their Islamic influence throughout central Asia and its silk routes. The T’ang (in China) lost a good amount of power and their westward advance was halted. Muslim shipping in the Indian Ocean improved, which restricted the ocean’s contacts with Hindu and Buddhist areas. The Muslims were never able to take control of the Himalayan northern borderlands. Paper manufacturing, an unexpected byproduct from the Battle of Talas, was first spread to Samarkand and Baghdad, then from there carried to Damascus, Cairo, and Morocco, and finally entered Europe through Italy and Spain. This diffusion originated when Chinese prisoners who knew how to make paper, an art discovered in China at least 650 years earlier, were taken by the Arabs at the Talas River. But most importantly, the Battle of Talas led to the An Lushan revolt, which broke out in 755. This rebellion paralyzed China for years and weakened the Tang dynasty until it collapsed a century and a half later. Sources:Twitchett, Denis, The Cambridge History of China (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1979).McNeil, William, The Rise of the West (University of Chicago, Chicago, 1963).Kennedy, Hugh, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphrates (Longman, London, 1986).Garraty, John A. and Gay, Peter, The Columbia History of the World (Harper and Row; New York, 1972).Edited by: Frederick Skoglund Researched by: Joel Card Written by: Kim Wentzler December 15, 1998Text copyright 1996-9 by David W. Koeller. dkoeller@northpark.edu. All rights reserved.

[xlv] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SH_CA/chapter_1.htm (The Witness Pioneer (WP) is spreading and establishing the message of Islam…)Early History of Spread of Islam in (former) Soviet Union Back Contents NextClick to subscribe to witness-pioneer mailing listChapter 1: Early History of Spread of Islam in (former) Soviet Union The former Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Republics, six of them were Muslim majority. These were Azerbeizan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikhistan and Kirghizia. There were also a large number of Muslims in Russian federation under USSR. Tatars and Bashkhirs of Volga-Ural region and most of the population of North Caucasus of Russian federation were Muslims. Besides a large number of Tatar Muslims live in Siberia and other regions. Crimea on the north of Black sea was Muslim majority area. But after second world war, the Communist Soviet government expelled all Tatars from Crimea and exiled them to Siberia, showing the reason that they helped the Germans during second world war. Later Crimea was included in another Soviet state Ukraine and Christian Slavs from Ukraine made settlement in Crimea. The Muslm population of Soviet Union are mainly concentrated in three regions. These are Central Asia, Volga-Ural and Caucasus. Firstly there are five Muslim states on the north of Afghanistan and Iran. These are Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Secondly the Muslim settlements on the banks of Volga river and Muslim regions of Tataria and Bashkhiria on the Ural mountains. Lastly the region between Black sea and Kashpian Sea.About one fourth of the area of Soviet Union was Muslim majority. If we exclude Siberia then it can be said that around half of the area of Soviet Union was Muslim majority, because the ice-covered barren Siberia occupies half of Soviet Union.Total population of Soviet Union was 22 crores(in 1975), of them Muslims are around 4 crores. There is shortage of authentic information about the exact population of Muslims in Soviet Union. In 1913 there were around one crore and eighty lac Muslims in Tsar ruled Russia [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London]. In 1960 it was assumed that Muslim population of Soviet Union was more than three crore [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London]. Depending on these statistics it is assumed that Muslim population of Russia is now around 4 crore(in the year 1975).Almost 85% of the Muslim population of Soviet Union are Turkish in origin and Turkish speaking. People of Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan of Central Asia, Tataria and Bashkhiria of Volga-Ural, and Azerbeizan of South Caucasus mountains are Turkish speaking. Beside these there are several Turkish speaking population in North Caucasus, Siberia, Lithuania and Belarus.The rest 15% Muslim population of Soviet Union are mainly the Farsi speaking population of Tajikhistan. Beside Turkish and Farsi speaking population, there are Muslim population in Caucasus with different local languages (e.g Dagestani, Chechen, Inguish, Kabarda, Adizei) and few Arabic speaking Muslims.It can be inferred from this discussion that only with the exception of Tajikhistan and North Caucasus whole of the Muslim population of Soviet Union are Turkish speaking and Turkish in origin.It is true that Turkish language in different parts of Soviet Union have different dialects. Soviet government have divided Turkish Muslim population on the basis of this difference. But the linguistic and nationalist unity of Turkish people cannot be overlooked. According to Alexander Bennigsen one Uzbek feel no problem to understand the language of Kazakh, Turkmen or Azeri people [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London].“The call of Islam reached Central Asia and South Caucasus Mountains in the eighth century. At that time the whole of Central Asia(except Northern part of Kazakhstan) and Caucasus came under Muslim Rule. In course of time most of the population of these areas accepted Islam and became Muslims.Islam entered in different parts of Russia from Central Asia and Caucasus. The Tatars of Volga-Ural accepted Islam in the middle age. The Tatars are also Turkish speaking and Turkish in origin. The nomads of North Kazakhstan and Kirghiz peoples of Kirghizistan accepted Islam between 16th and 19th century.Almost all Muslims of Lithuania, Siberia and Belarus are Tatar-Turk. They settled there during the reign of Tsar. Most of the Muslim regions came under Russian control during Tsars reign. Yet propagation and expansion of Islam continued upto the beginning of 20th century. Different tribes of Volga like Mari, Mordvinian, Udmut and Chuvas accepted Islam during this time.Back Contents Next [ Library ] [ Al-Qur'an ] [ Hadeeth ] [ Books ] [ Articles ]Send mail to webmaster@wponline.org with questions or comments about this web site. Copyright © 2002 WPONLINE.ORG Last modified: September 16, 2002

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Golden Horde

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The empire of the Golden Horde at its greatest extent.

The empire of the Golden Horde at its greatest extent.

From A. Hermann, An Historical Atlas of China

also calledKipchak KhanateRussian designation for the Ulus Juchi, the western part of the Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde were a mixture of Turks and Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy.

The ill-defined western portion of the empire of Genghis Khan formed the territorial endowment of his oldest son, Juchi. Juchi predeceased his father in 1227, but his son Batu (q.v.) expanded their domain in a series of brilliant campaigns that included the sacking and burning of the city of Kiev in 1240. At its peak the Golden Horde’s territory included most of European Russia from the Urals to the Carpathian Mountains, extending east deep into Siberia. On the south the Horde’s lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Iranian territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Il-Khans.

Batu founded his capital, Sarai Batu, on the lower stretch of the Volga River. The capital was later moved upstream to Sarai Berke, which at its peak held perhaps 600,000 inhabitants. The Horde was gradually Turkified and Islamized, especially under their greatest khan, Öz Beg (1313–41). The Turkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in the steppes, while their subject peoples, Russians, Mordvinians, Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians, contributed tribute. The Russian princes, particularly those of Muscovy, soon obtained responsibility for collecting the Russian tribute. The Horde carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamluk Egypt and the Genoese.

The Black Death, which struck in 1346–47, and the murder of Öz Beg’s successor marked the beginning of the Golden Horde’s decline and disintegration. The Russian princes won a signal victory over the Horde general Mamai at the Battle of Kulikovo (q.v.) in 1380. Mamai’s successor and rival, Tokhtamysh, sacked and burned Moscow in retaliation in 1382 and reestablished the Horde’s dominion over the Russians. Tokhtamysh had his own power broken, however, by his former ally Timur, who invaded the Horde’s territory in 1395, destroyed Sarai Berke, and deported most of the region’s skilled craftsmen to Central Asia, thus depriving the Horde of its technological edge over resurgent Muscovy.

In the 15th century the Horde disintegrated into several smaller khanates, the most important being those of the Crimea, Astrakhan, and Kazan. The last surviving remnant of the Golden Horde was destroyed by the Crimean Khan in 1502.

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Öz Beg

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flourished 14th century

also spelledUzbek,in fullGhiyath Al-din Muhammad Öz BegMongol leader and khan of the Golden Horde, or Kipchak empire, of southern Russia, under whom it attained its greatest power; he reigned from 1312 to 1341. Öz Beg was a convert to Islam, but he also welcomed Christian missionaries from western Europe into his realm. Öz Beg encouraged the predominance of the princes of Moscow among his Christian vassals; his name survives today in that of the Uzbek people and of Uzbekistan.

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[xlvi] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web“Pakistan” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ The northwest of the Indian subcontinent, which now constitutes Pakistan, lies athwart the historic invasion routes through the Khyber, Gumal, and Bolan passes from central Asia to the heartland of India, and for thousands of years invaders and adventurers swept down upon the settlements there. The Indus valley civilization, which flourished until c.1500 B.C., was one of the region’s earliest civilizations. The Aryans, who surpassed the Indus, were followed by the Persians of the Achaemenid empire, who by c.500 B.C. reached the Indus River. Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian empire, invaded the Punjab in 326 B.C. The Seleucid empire, heir to Alexander’s Indian conquest, was checked by the Mauryas, who by 305 B.C. occupied the Indus plain and much of Afghanistan.After the fall of the Mauryas (2d cent. B.C.) the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom rose to power, but was in turn overrun (c.97 B.C.) by Scythian nomads called Saka and then by the Parthians (c.A.D. 7). The Parthians, of Persian stock, were replaced by the Kushans; the Kushan Kanishka ruled (2d cent. A.D.) all of what is now Pakistan from his capital at Peshawar. In 712, the Muslim Arabs appeared in force and conquered Sind, and by 900 they controlled most of NW India. They were followed by the Ghaznavid and Ghorid Turks. The first Turki invaders reached Bengal c.1200 and an important Muslim center was established there, principally through conversion of the Hindus. Although the northeast of the Indian subcontinent (now Bangladesh) remained, with interruptions, part of a united Mughal empire in India from the early 16th cent. to 1857, the northwest changed hands many times before it became (1857) part of imperial British India. It was overrun by Persians in the late 1730s; by the Afghans, who held Sind and the Punjab during the latter half of the 18th cent.; and by the Sikhs, who rose to power in the Punjab under Ranjit Singh (1780–1839).

[xlviii] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volga_Bulgaria

“Volga Bulgaria From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.”Bulgaria, known today as Volga Bulgaria or İdel Bolğaristan, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. Today, Tatarstan is considered to be the descendant of Bulgaria (in terms of territory and people).

Bulgaria was founded around 660 by Kotrag Khan, the son of Kubrat Khan.

In confluence of Volga and Kama independed state was founded nearly in 800. The capital was Bolğar (or Bulgar) city, located 160 km south of the modern city of Kazan, Tatarstan, today Bolğar town. Other major cities included Bilär (the capital until 1236), Suar (Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan) and Cükätaw (Juketaw).

Modern Tatarstan cities Kazan and Yelabuga (Alabuğa) were founded as Volga Bulgaria’s border castles.

A large part of its population was Turkic. Modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars are descendants of the Volga Bulgars.

By 922, Volga Bulgaria was converted to Islam, and the notes of the Baghdad missionary Ahmad ibn Fadlan tell us that it was adopded as an official religion. Converting to Islam made Volga Bulgaria independet of Khazaria.

Annexed by the Mongols in 1236, in the 1240s Volga Bulgaria was incorporated into the Golden Horde, which itself became an Islamic state when converted by Bulgar missionaries. In the beginning of the 15th century the Golden Horde dissolved into several states, of which the Khanate of Kazan, which included the former lands of Volga Bulgaria, became the most important in the 1430s. However, since the 1552 conquest of Kazan by Tsar Ivan IV (‘The Terrible’), the Bulgar lands have been under Russian, and later Soviet rule.

[xlix] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide WebThe Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ SumatraSumatra had early contact with Indian civilization, and by the 7th cent. A.D. the powerful Hindu-Sumatran kingdom of Sri Vijaya (with its capital in or near Palembang) flourished under the house of Sailendra. The kingdom extended its control over a large part of Indonesia and also over the Malay Peninsula. By the 14th cent., Sumatran supremacy had waned, and the island fell under the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit. The Arabs, who may have arrived as early as the 10th cent., established the sultanate of Achin (now Aceh), which reached its height in the 17th cent. and controlled most of the island.

[l] Mahmud of Ghazna (mämūd’, gŭz’na) , 971?–1030, Afghan emperor and conqueror. He defeated (c.999) his elder brother to gain control of Khorasan (in Iran) and of Afghanistan. In his raids against the states of N India, Mahmud, a staunch Muslim, destroyed Hindu temples, forced conversions to Islam, and carried off booty and slaves. Hindus especially abhorred his destruction of the temple to Shiva at Somnath in Gujarat. Mahmud’s territorial gains lay mainly W and N of Afghanistan and in the Punjab. At Ghazna (see Ghazni), his capital, he built a magnificent mosque. His successors in the Ghaznavid dynasty, which Mahmud founded, ruled over a reduced domain with the capital at Lahore until 1186. “Mahmud of Ghazna”The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

[li] Between the 11th and 13th centuries the coastal areas were raided by Muslim, Japanese, and Chinese merchant ships, bringing traders and craftsmen to the islands. The southern islands adopted Islam and sultanates soon appeared.General Board of Global Ministries Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://gbgm-umc.org/country_profiles/country_history.cfm?Id=121

[lii] Retrieved December 29, 2004, from the World Wide Web

http://www.dicksonc.act.edu.au/Showcase/ClioContents/Clio2/manzikert.html

CLIO: Issue 2, Nov 1997

CLIO

Journal of Ancient and Medieval History at Dickson College Dickson College Logo

Historical tower That Terrible Day:

The Byzantine defeat at Manzikert, AD 1071

Rosemary, 1996

The battle of Manzikert was such a shattering defeat that the Byzantines were never able to speak of it as other than “that terrible day”. It was on that terrible day in 1071 that “Anatolia, heartland of Byzantium… was lost forever to Christendom” (Streater p 257). In one catastrophic day the eastern Roman Empire had lost its major recruiting region, its major grain producing region, and its vital trade route between Constantinople and the riches of the East.

The Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes was crowned on January 1st, 1068. According to Norwich, he was an arrogant man with a strong sense of his own importance but he was also a brave soldier. Romanus understood the threat the Seljuks posed to his empire. At home in Constantinople, Romanus had to deal with Michael Psellus and the Ducas family who, according to Norwich, loathed him and his rise to power and were resolved to bring about his destruction. The strength of this ill-feeling towards him made it virtually impossible for Romanus to leave Constantinople on campaigns, because every time he left there was the possibility of one of his enemies attempting a coup. This, however, played to his advantage because he was able to devote his energies to improving the army, obtaining new equipment, implementing new training programs and recruiting new forces. The truce that had recently been made with the Turkish leader Alp Arslan was continually being broken by the marauding Turkomans and was generally considered by Romanus as a failure. Romanus was already planning a campaign for 1071, with an army of some seventy thousand men.

According to Runciman, the army assembled by Romanus in 1071 was:

no longer the magnificent force it had been fifty years before….. The cavalry regiments, sixty thousand strong, that had patrolled the Syrian frontier… were now disbanded. The imperial guards, hand-picked and highly trained Anatolians, were far below their old strength. The bulk of the army consisted now of foreign mercenaries, the Norsemen of the Varangian Guard, Normans and Franks from western Europe, Slavs from the north, and Turks from the steppes of southern Russia, Petcheneg, cuman and Ghuzz. Out of these elements Romanus collected a force of nearly a hundred thousand men, of which perhaps half were Byzantine born…. (Runciman p 62) This expedition crossed the Bosphorus in the second week of March 1071, and then headed eastward. The historian Michael Attaleiates was present; it is his version of events of that summer that remains the most detailed and trustworthy account of the Battle at Manzikert. Two-hundred miles into the journey, Romanus’ demeanour is said to have changed dramatically. Attaleiates suggests that Romanus had been disturbed by various bad omens, among them being the sudden breakage of his tent pole, the unexplained fire in his tent that damaged most of his personal possessions and the loss of many of his best horses and mules. The Emperor’s determination remained firm, realising that if he were to return to Constantinople without having engaged the Seljuks on the battle field, he would have little chance of maintaining his role as Emperor.

According to Norwich, Romanus sent the greater part of the Roman army towards Lake Van, under the command of the experienced general Joseph Tarchaniotes, while he himself and his senior commander Nicephorus Byrennius continued with the remainder of the army towards the little fortress town of Manzikert. Tarchaniotes and his force met with misfortune of some sort, but it is not certain what happened. Later Moslem historians claimed that he had been overwhelmed in a great battle, but there is no contemporary evidence for this. Norwich believes that Tarchaniotes may have deliberately abandoned the emperor and was really a traitor, a tool of the Ducas family.

On the other hand, Runciman tells us that Joseph Tarchaniotes was Turkish born, and commanded the largest contingent of mercenaries, the Turkish Cumans. He believes that ‘the Cumans, remembering that they were Turks and in arrears with their pay, had gone over in a body on the previous night to join the enemy’ Whatever happened to Tarchaniotes, Romanus was now left to fight the Turks with less than half his army. His corps d’elite, the Norman and Frankish heavy cavalry, decided to take no part in the battle. (Runciman p 63)

There is no certainty about the actual date and location of the battle; the actual date varies from 5th August to 26th of August. Moslem historians are unanimous that it took place on a Friday in August; Michael Attaleiates says that it was a moonless night, and, according to Norwich, this means that it must have been the 26th. The most likely location is a fairly level steppe with rougher and hillier country close by, beyond which is a line of foothills cut through with ravines and gullies – ideal ambush territory – about a mile or two from the fortress of Manzikert.

There are no contemporary eye-witness accounts of the events of that day, other than Michael Attaleiates. According to Jasper Streater “Arab historians for two centuries wrote of it in great detail, and sometimes in rhyme, and no two agreed on the size of the armies engaged.” (Streater, p 258) Anna Comnena refers to the battle very briefly towards the end of her history when she is narrating her father’s dealings with the Turkish sultan Saisan:

(Alexius) made a speech, explaining his decision in full.’If you are willing’ he said, ‘to yield to the authority of Rome and to put an end to your raids on the Christians, you will enjoy favours and honour, living in freedom for the rest of your lives on lands set aside for you. I refer to the lands where you used to dwell before Romanus Diogenes became emperor and before he met the sultan in battle – an unfortunate and notorious clash which ended in the Roman’s defeat and capture..’

(Anna Comnena, 15,vi)

Anna’s husband, Nicephorus Byrennius, whose grandfather took part in the battle, also wrote an account of the action. According to this, fighting began on the day before the actual battle, when Romanus sent out a detachment of troops to drive off what he believed to be a small band of turkish marauders, then later a larger detachment led by Byrennius himself. Byrennius found himself ‘confronted with what must have been a considerable proportion of the entire Seljuk army’ (Norwich p 349) By nightfall, it must have been clear that the Byzantine army would have to fight when the day came.

The expected battle did not take place on the next day. Instead, a Turkish delegation came with an offer of peace. Romanus dismissed the idea of a division of the Armenian territory proposed to him by the embassy. According to Streater, this was an inexplicable error on his part, a failure to exploit the growing rift between two branches of Islam, the Shi’ites and the Sunni. Alp Arslan had been intent on marching against the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt and only turned north reluctantly to deal with the Byzantine threat. Romanus could have exploited the Moslem quarrel to his own advantage. His refusal made the battle certain.

It seems likely that Romanus now organised his men on the battle field in the style of the traditional army manuals, that is, a long line several ranks deep, with the cavalry on the ends. Romanus himself took the centre, with Bryennius on his left and a general named Alyattes on his right. The rearguard was composed of the private armies of the great landowners, under the command of Andronicus Ducas, the nephew of the late Emperor. Andronicus should never have been allowed to participate in the battle, let alone to lead the rearguard, as he made no secret of his contempt and loathing for Romanus. However, Romanus no doubt thought it better to have Andronicus under his watchful eye, rather than at home in Constantinople where he was likely to stir up more trouble, or so Romanus thought.

The imperial army advanced across the steppe towards the Seljuks, who steadily withdrew into a crescent, allowing their archers to shower the Byzantine’s flanks with arrows. The cavalry, probably angered by the Seljuks’ archery, followed the Seljuk horsemen towards the foothills and fell straight into prepared ambushes. The Emperor remained on the battlefield, frustrated by the lack of enemy. Realising that there was nothing further to gain from pursuit, especially as the sun was setting and he had left his camp practically undefended, Romanus ordered the imperial standards to be reversed, the signal to withdraw. Alp Arslan had been waiting for this signal from his observation point in the hills above and ordered his men to attack. As Arslan’s men poured down onto the steppe, the Romans broke in confusion. Many of the mercenary units retreated, assuming that the Emperor had been killed or captured, and this allowed the Seljuks to infiltrate the front line and separate it from the rearguard. Had the rearguard acted correctly by moving forward they would have prevented the Seljuks’ escape. Instead, Andronicus spread the word that the emperor had been killed and the battle lost, and subsequently fled. This act caused more confusion among the remaining troops and more and more of them fled the battlefield. Only the Emperor remained with his personal guards around him. Romanus fought valiantly until the end:

The emperor was completely isolated and deprived of reinforcement. Then he charged, his sword bare, killed more than one Turk and forced others to flee. But finally, surrounded by a mass of enemies, he was wounded in the hand. Recognized by the enemy, hemmed in on all sides, he was captured when an arrow wounded his horse, which slipped and lost its footing, felling its rider at the same time (Hallam p 42) Romanus was treated by Alp Arslan with the respect that his position entailed. For the next week, Romanus remained as a guest in the Turkish camp and ate at Alp Arslan’s table. The peace terms were more than moderate and merciful. The Sultan only demanded the surrender of Manzikert, Antioch, Edessa and Hieropolis as well as one of Romanus’ daughters as a wife for one of Arslan’s sons. The ransom for Romanus was even reduced from ten million to half a million, with a further three-hundred and sixty thousand in annual tribute. Romanus was then allowed to return to Constantinople, because of the very real danger of a threat to his throne. Romanus had hoped to return to Constantinople as Emperor, but these feeling were not shared by the inhabitants of Constantinople. The news of the defeat had come as the second cracking blow in one year, as 1071 had also seen the fall of Byzantine Italy to the Normans led by Robert Guiscard. This is how the arrival of the news was described by Nicephorus Byrennius:

A very few days passed before one of the fugitives arrived at Constantinople as bearer of evil tidings, and then there was another, then a third and a fourth, having nothing precise to announce except the catastrophe itself…… The matter was discussed in council by Empress Eudocia, Romanus’ wife, who was asking what she had to do. Everyone agreed that it was necessary provisionally to abandon Romanus to his fate, whether he was prisoner or dead, and that the empress must secure the power for herself and her sons. Everyone was still in suspense when it was decided that the empress-mother and Michael Ducas, the eldest of her sons, should share the empire under the following conditions: Eudocia should have the honours due to the mother of the emperor, but she should share with her son the reality of supreme power… (Hallam p 42) Romanus was able to gather together what was left of his army with the intention of marching into Constantinople and reclaiming the throne from his step-son, Michael VII Ducas. There were two battles before Romanus reached Constantinople, both against John Ducas and in both Romanus was defeated. After the second battle he gave himself up to Andronicus, agreeing to renounce all claims to the throne and to retire to a monastery. In return he was given assurance that no harm would come to him on his return to Constantinople However, Andronicus put Romanus on a mule for the five-hundred mile journey back to Constantinople and allowed him to be attacked by onlookers, one of whom poked out his eyes. Romanus died in the summer of 1072.

The Battle of Manzikert can be seen as the most disastrous battle in the history of Byzantine civilization. Romanus was a brave and gallant leader, but it was his naivety in trusting Andronicus with leadership of the rearguard and his lack of information of the enemy’s movements which caused the East Roman army’s worst defeat ever.

Bibliography

Hallam, Elizabeth, 1989, Chronicles of the Crusades, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London

Norwich, John Julius, 1993, Byzantium – The Apogee, Penguin, Sydney

Rice, Tamara Talbot, 1969, Byzantium, Rupert Hart-Davis, London

Runciman, Steven, 1933, Byzantine Civilisation, University Paperbacks, London

Sewter, E, 1969, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth

Streater, Jasper, ‘The Battle of Manzikert’ in History Today, April 1967

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[liii] Salahuddin Ayyubi– famous for having recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders…with the advice of his father, he stayed away from any conflicts with Nureddin, his formal lord, after he had become the real ruler over Egypt. Instead he waited until Nureddin’s death, before he started serious military actions first against smaller Muslim states, before directing it against the Crusaders. Saladin is one of very few personages of the time of the Crusades that has managed to be positively described in both Western and Eastern sources.

1164: He starts to show his military and strategical qualities under 3 campaigns against the Crusaders who were established in Palestine, with the first campaign this year.

1174: Nureddin dies, and Saladin uses the opportunity to extend his power base.

— Conquers Damascus

http://i-cias.com/e.o/saladin.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saladin

[liv] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web“Pakistan” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ The northwest of the Indian subcontinent, which now constitutes Pakistan, lies athwart the historic invasion routes through the Khyber, Gumal, and Bolan passes from central Asia to the heartland of India, and for thousands of years invaders and adventurers swept down upon the settlements there. The Indus valley civilization, which flourished until c.1500 B.C., was one of the region’s earliest civilizations. The Aryans, who surpassed the Indus, were followed by the Persians of the Achaemenid empire, who by c.500 B.C. reached the Indus River. Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian empire, invaded the Punjab in 326 B.C. The Seleucid empire, heir to Alexander’s Indian conquest, was checked by the Mauryas, who by 305 B.C. occupied the Indus plain and much of Afghanistan.After the fall of the Mauryas (2d cent. B.C.) the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom rose to power, but was in turn overrun (c.97 B.C.) by Scythian nomads called Saka and then by the Parthians (c.A.D. 7). The Parthians, of Persian stock, were replaced by the Kushans; the Kushan Kanishka ruled (2d cent. A.D.) all of what is now Pakistan from his capital at Peshawar. In 712, the Muslim Arabs appeared in force and conquered Sind, and by 900 they controlled most of NW India. They were followed by the Ghaznavid and Ghorid Turks. The first Turki invaders reached Bengal c.1200 and an important Muslim center was established there, principally through conversion of the Hindus. Although the northeast of the Indian subcontinent (now Bangladesh) remained, with interruptions, part of a united Mughal empire in India from the early 16th cent. to 1857, the northwest changed hands many times before it became (1857) part of imperial British India. It was overrun by Persians in the late 1730s; by the Afghans, who held Sind and the Punjab during the latter half of the 18th cent.; and by the Sikhs, who rose to power in the Punjab under Ranjit Singh (1780–1839).

[lv] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web

“Bengal”

[lvi] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 37

[lvii]In the 13th century, Aceh became the first Muslim stronghold in the Indonesian archipelago” Aceh Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 28, 2004, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9003497>

[lviii] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide WebThe Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ SumatraSumatra had early contact with Indian civilization, and by the 7th cent. A.D. the powerful Hindu-Sumatran kingdom of Sri Vijaya (with its capital in or near Palembang) flourished under the house of Sailendra. The kingdom extended its control over a large part of Indonesia and also over the Malay Peninsula. By the 14th cent., Sumatran supremacy had waned, and the island fell under the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit. The Arabs, who may have arrived as early as the 10th cent., established the sultanate of Achin (now Aceh), which reached its height in the 17th cent. and controlled most of the island.

[lix] Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.niu.edu/cseas/outreach/islamSPhil.htm Islam in the Southern Philippines by Isabelle VloeberghsNorthern Illinois University

[lxi] The Chaghadaids and Islam: the conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331-34).
Publication Date: 01-OCT-02
Publication Title: The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Format: HTML
Author: Biran, Michal

[lxii] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SH_CA/chapter_1.htm (The Witness Pioneer (WP) is spreading and establishing the message of Islam…)

Early History of Spread of Islam in (former) Soviet Union Back Contents NextClick to subscribe to witness-pioneer mailing listChapter 1: Early History of Spread of Islam in (former) Soviet Union The former Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Republics, six of them were Muslim majority. These were Azerbeizan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikhistan and Kirghizia. There were also a large number of Muslims in Russian federation under USSR. Tatars and Bashkhirs of Volga-Ural region and most of the population of North Caucasus of Russian federation were Muslims. Besides a large number of Tatar Muslims live in Siberia and other regions. Crimea on the north of Black sea was Muslim majority area. But after second world war, the Communist Soviet government expelled all Tatars from Crimea and exiled them to Siberia, showing the reason that they helped the Germans during second world war.

Later Crimea was included in another Soviet state Ukraine and Christian Slavs from Ukraine made settlement in Crimea.The Muslm population of Soviet Union are mainly concentrated in three regions. These are Central Asia, Volga-Ural and Caucasus. Firstly there are five Muslim states on the north of Afghanistan and Iran. These are Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Secondly the Muslim settlements on the banks of Volga river and Muslim regions of Tataria and Bashkhiria on the Ural mountains. Lastly the region between Black sea and Kashpian Sea.About one fourth of the area of Soviet Union was Muslim majority. If we exclude Siberia then it can be said that around half of the area of Soviet Union was Muslim majority, because the ice-covered barren Siberia occupies half of Soviet Union.Total population of Soviet Union was 22 crores(in 1975), of them Muslims are around 4 crores. There is shortage of authentic information about the exact population of Muslims in Soviet Union. In 1913 there were around one crore and eighty lac Muslims in Tsar ruled Russia [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London]. In 1960 it was assumed that Muslim population of Soviet Union was more than three crore [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London]. Depending on these statistics it is assumed that Muslim population of Russia is now around 4 crore(in the year 1975).Almost 85% of the Muslim population of Soviet Union are Turkish in origin and Turkish speaking. People of Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan of Central Asia, Tataria and Bashkhiria of Volga-Ural, and Azerbeizan of South Caucasus mountains are Turkish speaking. Beside these there are several Turkish speaking population in North Caucasus, Siberia, Lithuania and Belarus.The rest 15% Muslim population of Soviet Union are mainly the Farsi speaking population of Tajikhistan. Beside Turkish and Farsi speaking population, there are Muslim population in Caucasus with different local languages (e.g Dagestani, Chechen, Inguish, Kabarda, Adizei) and few Arabic speaking Muslims.It can be inferred from this discussion that only with the exception of Tajikhistan and North Caucasus whole of the Muslim population of Soviet Union are Turkish speaking and Turkish in origin.It is true that Turkish language in different parts of Soviet Union have different dialects.

Soviet government have divided Turkish Muslim population on the basis of this difference. But the linguistic and nationalist unity of Turkish people cannot be overlooked. According to Alexander Bennigsen one Uzbek feel no problem to understand the language of Kazakh, Turkmen or Azeri people [Bennigsen. A. Islam in The Soviet Union, Pali Mall Press, London].“The call of Islam reached Central Asia and South Caucasus Mountains in the eighth century. At that time the whole of Central Asia(except Northern part of Kazakhstan) and Caucasus came under Muslim Rule. In course of time most of the population of these areas accepted Islam and became Muslims.Islam entered in different parts of Russia from Central Asia and Caucasus. The Tatars of Volga-Ural accepted Islam in the middle age. The Tatars are also Turkish speaking and Turkish in origin. The nomads of North Kazakhstan and Kirghiz peoples of Kirghizistan accepted Islam between 16th and 19th century.Almost all Muslims of Lithuania, Siberia and Belarus are Tatar-Turk. They settled there during the reign of Tsar. Most of the Muslim regions came under Russian control during Tsars reign. Yet propagation and expansion of Islam continued upto the beginning of 20th century. Different tribes of Volga like Mari, Mordvinian, Udmut and Chuvas accepted Islam during this time.Back Contents Next [ Library ] [ Al-Qur'an ] [ Hadeeth ] [ Books ] [ Articles ]Send mail to webmaster@wponline.org with questions or comments about this web site. Copyright © 2002 WPONLINE.ORG Last modified: September 16, 2002

________

Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9037242 “Golden Horde”

The empire of the Golden Horde at its greatest extent.

From A. Hermann, An Historical Atlas of China

also calledKipchak KhanateRussian designation for the Ulus Juchi, the western part of the Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde were a mixture of Turks and Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy.

The ill-defined western portion of the empire of Genghis Khan formed the territorial endowment of his oldest son, Juchi. Juchi predeceased his father in 1227, but his son Batu (q.v.) expanded their domain in a series of brilliant campaigns that included the sacking and burning of the city of Kiev in 1240. At its peak the Golden Horde’s territory included most of European Russia from the Urals to the Carpathian Mountains, extending east deep into Siberia. On the south the Horde’s lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Iranian territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Il-Khans.

Batu founded his capital, Sarai Batu, on the lower stretch of the Volga River. The capital was later moved upstream to Sarai Berke, which at its peak held perhaps 600,000 inhabitants. The Horde was gradually Turkified and Islamized, especially under their greatest khan, Öz Beg (1313–41). The Turkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in the steppes, while their subject peoples, Russians, Mordvinians, Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians, contributed tribute. The Russian princes, particularly those of Muscovy, soon obtained responsibility for collecting the Russian tribute. The Horde carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamluk Egypt and the Genoese.

The Black Death, which struck in 1346–47, and the murder of Öz Beg’s successor marked the beginning of the Golden Horde’s decline and disintegration. The Russian princes won a signal victory over the Horde general Mamai at the Battle of Kulikovo (q.v.) in 1380. Mamai’s successor and rival, Tokhtamysh, sacked and burned Moscow in retaliation in 1382 and reestablished the Horde’s dominion over the Russians. Tokhtamysh had his own power broken, however, by his former ally Timur, who invaded the Horde’s territory in 1395, destroyed Sarai Berke, and deported most of the region’s skilled craftsmen to Central Asia, thus depriving the Horde of its technological edge over resurgent Muscovy.

In the 15th century the Horde disintegrated into several smaller khanates, the most important being those of the Crimea, Astrakhan, and Kazan. The last surviving remnant of the Golden Horde was destroyed by the Crimean Khan in 1502.

Page 1 of 1

Introduction

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Öz Beg

Encyclopædia Britannica Article

Flourished 14th century

also spelledUzbek,in fullGhiyath Al-din Muhammad Öz BegMongol leader and khan of the Golden Horde, or Kipchak empire, of southern Russia, under whom it attained its greatest power; he reigned from 1312 to 1341. Öz Beg was a convert to Islam, but he also welcomed Christian missionaries from western Europe into his realm. Öz Beg encouraged the predominance of the princes of Moscow among his Christian vassals; his name survives today in that of the Uzbek people and of Uzbekistan.

“Öz Beg.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005.Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

4 Jan. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9057862>.

[lxiii] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.newtimes.ru/eng/detail.asp?art_id=562

New Times (Russia) November 2004

Yury Buida.“Is Imposture Really So Bad?”

The besieged fortress called Russia

With a hostile non-Christian steppe for a neighbor in the south, Russia developed under the strong influence

of Byzantium. European culture also had its roots in Byzantium (a fact that is frequently ignored in Russia).

Conservation, and even suspension, of common European trends, and realignment with the eastern aspect

of Byzantine culture that had gathered strength by the time Russia embraced Christianity and was akin, to a

large extent, to the steppe spirit, all came at a time when Russia lived under Tatar domination. After 1330,

when the khan of the Golden Horde, Uzbek (Oz Beg) converted to Islam, relations between Moscow and

the Golden Horde gradually broke out of their vassal-suzerain pattern. The resistance to the Golden Horde

developed into a religious war with an intensity reminding us of Spain’s Reconquista.

Dominated by non-Christians, Russian peasants came to be called krestiane (i.e., Christians). They rallied

around the Church into a solid rock impregnable to temptations of other confessions and faiths. A move –

even if minor and unintentional – away from Christian Orthodoxy was considered the same as heresy.

Falling out with the Church, or still worse, challenging it in that age was tantamount to a complete break

with the Orthodox state and society, that is, rupturing of all familial, spiritual and social ties, and rejection of

the community’s patronage and protection in the face of an enemy. Conformism was the norm. As St.

Joseph of Volotsk, a 15th century Russian theologian, wrote about Russians, “we all are lambs of our

common Pastor, Jesus Christ, and all are of one mind.” That was when and how the foundations of the

enigmatic Russian sobornost (an association of people united in love, freedom and faith – Ed.) were laid.

Conditions were not propitious at the time for an independent Church, autonomous in its relations with the

secular state (like the Catholic autonomy that spawned Martin Luther, Reformation, and liberalism).

[lxv] Turks began to advance through the Balkans, defeating the Hungarians and their allies at Kosovo (1389), Nikopol (1396), and Varna (1444).

[lxvi] Turks began to advance through the Balkans, defeating the Hungarians and their allies at Kosovo (1389), Nikopol (1396), and Varna (1444).

[lxvii] Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.niu.edu/cseas/outreach/islamSPhil.htm Islam in the Southern Philippines by Isabelle VloeberghsNorthern Illinois University

[lxviii] Malaysia Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 31, 2004, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=52555>MalaysiaEncyclopædia Britannica Article Page31of39Print PagePrint ArticleE-mail ArticleCite Article History > The advent of IslamBy the late classical period a new religion, Islam, was filtering quietly into the region from outside, carried chiefly by Arab and Indian merchants. From the 13th through 17th century Sunnite Islam spread widely, coming from the Middle East via India. It offered an egalitarian message that challenged the power of the traditional elites and a complex theology that held much appeal for peasants and merchants in the coastal regions. The spread of Islam was intimately linked to the florescence of the great Indian Ocean maritime trading routes that connected China through the Strait of Malacca to India, the Middle East, and East Africa. Over these routes Indonesian spices, Malayan gold, and Chinese silks and tea traveled to Europe, sparking interest there in reaching the sources of these riches.Malacca empire in 1500. Malacca empire in 1500.The arrival of Islam coincided with the rise of the great port of Malacca (now Melaka), established on Malaya’s southwest coast by Sumatran exiles about 1400. The Indianized king—who sensibly and successfully sought a tributary relationship with powerful China—converted to Islam, becoming a “sultan” and hence attracting Muslim merchants. Soon Malacca became Southeast Asia’s major trading entrepôt, while at the same time it gained suzerainty over much of coastal Malaya and eastern Sumatra. Malacca served as the main centre for the propagation of Islam as well as the eastern terminus of the Indian Ocean trading network. At its height in the late 15th century, Malacca hosted some 15,000 merchants from many countries, including Chinese, Arabs, Persians, and Indians; there were said to be more ships in the harbour than in any other port in the known world, attracted by a stable government and a policy of free trade. The Chinese admiral Cheng Ho called at the port several times in the first decades of the 15th century as part of the great Ming naval expeditions to the western Indian Ocean. Malacca’s political and religious influence reached its height under Tun Perak, who served as prime minister (1456–98) after defeating the expanding Thai in a fierce naval battle; during his service Islam became well-entrenched in such districts (and subsidiary sultanates) as Johor, Kedah, Perak, Pahang, and Terengganu.The mostly Islamicized people of the Malacca area began calling themselves “Malays” (a likely elite reference to earlier Srivijayan origins). Thereafter, the term Malay applied to those who practiced Islam and spoke a version of the Malay language; identity and behaviour, rather than descent, became the criteria for being Malay, so that previously animist and Hindu-Buddhist peoples of various origins could identify themselves (and even merge) with the prestigious Malays. Over time a loose cultural designation became a coherent ethnic group spread throughout Malaya, northern and western Borneo, eastern Sumatra, and the smaller islands in between, a region that can be termed the “Malay world.” Islam, however, came to overlay the earlier beliefs, so that, before the rise of religious reform movements in the 19th century, few Malays were orthodox Muslims. Hindu-influenced ritual remained important for the elite, and animist spirits were richly incorporated into Islamic folk beliefs. Previous Page Page 31 of 39 Next Page The rise of Indianized states The advent of Islam Early European intrusionsTo cite this page:MLA style: “Malaysia.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004.Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 31 Dec. 2004 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=52555>.APA style: Malaysia Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 31, 2004, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=52555>Britannica style: “Malaysia” Encyclopædia Britannicafrom Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=52555> [Accessed December 31, 2004].Back to topAbout Us :: Privacy Policy :: Terms of Use :: Contact Us :: Syndication :: International Publishing Other Britannica sites ( Australia :: India :: Korea :: United Kingdom :: More ) © 2004 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

[lxix] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Melaka or Malacca (both: məlăk’ə) , state (1991 pop. 504,502), 640 sq mi (1,658 sq km), Malaysia, S Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Formerly one of the Straits Settlements, it was constituted a state of Malaya in 1957 (see Malaysia). Nearly half the population are Malay; about two fifths are Chinese. The capital, on the strait, is the historic city of Melaka or

Malacca

(1991 pop. 112,873). Until the 17th cent., Malacca was one of the leading commercial centers of SE Asia. It was founded c.1400 by a Malay prince who had been driven from Singapore after a brief reign there. The city quickly gained wealth as a center of trade with China, Indonesia, India, and the Middle East. Its sultans, aided by the decline of the Madjapahit empire of Java and by the friendship of China, extended their power over the nearby coast of Sumatra and over the Malay Peninsula as far north as Kedah and Pattani. More importantly, Gujarati traders introduced Islam to the Malay world through Malacca. In 1511, Malacca was captured by the Portuguese under Alfonso de Albuquerque. The sultan fled first to Pahang and then to Johor. In the mid-16th cent. St. Francis Xavier preached in Malacca. Portugal’s control was frequently contested by Aceh and Johor. In the early 17th cent. the Dutch entered the region, allied themselves with Johor, and captured Malacca in 1641 after a long siege. They utilized the city more as a fortress guarding the strait than as a trading port. The Dutch retained nominal control until 1824, although during the wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic period (1795–1818) the British occupied Malacca at the request of the Dutch government-in-exile. In 1824 the Dutch formally transferred Malacca to Great Britain. The modern city, of slight economic importance, retains traces of its past in its Portuguese and Dutch buildings and Portuguese-Eurasian community. The majority of the city’s inhabitants are Chinese, who have acquired many Malay customs.

[lxx] Around 1405, the year that the war over succession ended in the Majapahit Empire, Sufi traders introduced Islam into the Hindu-Malayan empires and for about the next century the southern half of Luzon and the islands south of it were subject to the various Muslim sultanates of Borneo. During this period, the Japanese established a trading post at Aparri and maintained a loose sway over northern Luzon.Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines

[lxxi] Turks began to advance through the Balkans, defeating the Hungarians and their allies at Kosovo (1389), Nikopol (1396), and Varna (1444).

[lxxii] Pattani kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pattani_kingdom

[lxxiii]World Statesmen. Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

worldstatesmen.org/Thailand.html

[lxxiv] Sultan Muhammad— conquered Constantinople, what is today called Istanbul in Turkey. May 29, 1453

http://militaryhistory.about.com/cs/medievalmilitary/a/fallconstantino.htm

[lxxv] Charles Kimball. History of Thailand & Southeast Asia

http://www.guidetothailand.com/thailand-history/portugese.htm

[lxxvi] Charles Kimball. History of Thailand & Southeast Asia

http://www.guidetothailand.com/thailand-history/portugese.htm

[lxxvii] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Mughal (mūgŭl’) or Mogul (mō’gəl, mōgŭl’) , Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkish chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur’s invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, Humayun, who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. Akbar, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar’s death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Orissa and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar’s son Jahangir and under his grandson Shah Jahan, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). Aurangzeb, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architecture).

[lxxviii] Pest fell to the Turks in 1526, Buda in 1541.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

[lxxix] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 26.

[lxxxiii] Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800

[lxxxv] Captives of the Barbary States By Cindy Vallar, Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.cindyvallar.com/BCcaptives.html

[lxxxvi] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Sher Khan (shār khän) or Sher Shah (shä) , 1486–1545, Afghan ruler in N India. He enlisted in the service of the Mughal leader Babur when the latter invaded India and became governor of Bihar. After Babur’s death, however, he asserted his independence of the Mughals, and in 1537, when Humayun, son of Babur, was elsewhere engaged, he overran Bengal. A brilliant strategist, Sher Khan routed the army of Humayun in 1539, and a year later decisively defeated a fresh army at Kanauj. Humayun fled to Sind and thence to Persia, and Sher Khan as Sher Shah took control of the Mughal empire. During the five years of his reign (1540–45), Sher Shah proved himself a gifted administrator as well as an able general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.

[lxxxvii] Pest fell to the Turks in 1526, Buda in 1541.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

[lxxxviii] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 25-26.

[lxxxix] Captives of the Barbary States By Cindy Vallar, Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.cindyvallar.com/BCcaptives.html

[xc] Captives of the Barbary States By Cindy Vallar, Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.cindyvallar.com/BCcaptives.html

[xci] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web“Bengladesh”The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/The history of Bangladesh is related to that of the larger area of Bengal, which became independent of Delhi by 1341. After a succession of Muslim rulers, it was conquered by Akbar, the great Mughal emperor in 1576. By the beginning of the 18th cent., the governor of the province was virtually independent, but he lost control to the British East India Company, which after 1775 was the effective ruler of the vast area, which also included the Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand, and Bihar.

[xcii] Retrieved December 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Mughal (mūgŭl’) or Mogul (mō’gəl, mōgŭl’) , Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkish chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur’s invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, Humayun, who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. Akbar, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar’s death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Orissa and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar’s son Jahangir and under his grandson Shah Jahan, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). Aurangzeb, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architecture).

[xciii] Captives of the Barbary States By Cindy Vallar

[xcvi] Harem in the Ottoman Empire. Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.allaboutturkey.com/harem.htmr

[xcvii] Captives of the Barbary States By Cindy Vallar, Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.cindyvallar.com/BCcaptives.html

[xcix] By 1650 the Portuguese had been expelled by the Ya’ariba leader, Sultan bin Sayf, who rebuilt the fort at Nizwa. Internal conflicts allowed a Persian invasion in 1743 but this was brought to an end by Ahmad ibn Sa’id governor of Sohar who was elected imam in 1743. He was the founder of the Al Bu Sa’id dynasty which continues to rule Oman today.

In 1730 Oman had acquired the island of Zanzibar and by the 1830s Sultan Sa’id ibn Sultan had built a new capital in Zanzibar.Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://archnet.org/library/dictionary/entry.tcl?entry_id=DIA0494&mode=full ArchNet Digital Library, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture

[c] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 34.

[ci] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_empire#History

[cii] Süleyman (Ibrahim) II

Encyclopædia Britannica Article

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born April 15, 1642, Constantinople [Istanbul, Tur.]

died June 23, 1691, Edirne, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey]

Ottoman sultan (1687–91) who, despite his short reign and 46 years of enforced confinement before he succeeded his brother Mehmed IV, was able to strengthen the Ottoman state through internal reforms and reconquests of territory.

The army mutiny that had brought Süleyman to the throne and deposed his brother continued violently through the early part of his reign, and the Ottomans suffered a series of military defeats in the Balkans. In 1689, however, a member of the Köprülü family, which earlier in the century had given Turkey two outstanding viziers (ministers), came to power; Fazil Mustafa Pasa became grand vizier, reestablished order, drove the Austrians out of Bulgaria and Transylvania, and retook Belgrade and Niš in 1690. Süleyman, allowing Fazil Mustafa Pasa a free hand in the government, succeeded in introducing reforms to lighten the tax burden and to improve the condition of his Christian subjects.

5 Jan. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9070230>.

[ciii] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KhivaandE.Voiskunsky, I.Lukodyanov. The Crew Of The Mekong see \scrap\islam in cnetral asia

[civ] http://lib.ru/RUFANT/WOJSKUNOWSKIJ/mekong_engl.txt

[cv] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afsharid_dynasty

[cvi] http://www.wagateway.org/people.htm

[cvii] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 37-38.

[cviii] jihad Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 3, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9043635>

[cix] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 37-38.

[cx] In 1824 Sultan Sa’id ibn Sultan of Oman established his capital there, shifting it from Muscat on the Arabian Peninsula. During the remainder of the 19th century, the city flourished as the base for Arab and European activities in eastern Africa, becoming infamous for its trade in slaves. Zanzibar subsequently declined in importance as the ports of Dar es Salaam and Mombasa (on the coast of the eastern African mainland) took over much of its trade.Zanzibar Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 4, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9078249>

[cxi] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 37-38.

[cxii] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 38.

[cxiii] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 38.

[cxiv] Mohsin Farooqi. “Europe Under Muslim Rule: Dr. Mohsin Farooqi takes a look at the history of Muslim rule in Europe to remind the Muslim Ummah of its glorious past”. Jama’at ud Da’wa.Retrieved From the Worldwide Web November 07, 2002:

http://www.jamatdawa.org/english/articles/history/europe_under_islam_iv.htm.

[cxv] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.webstar.co.uk/~ubugaje/beyond6.html

THE JIHAD OF SHAYKH USMAN DAN FODIO AND ITS IMPACT BEYOND THE SOKOTO CALIPHATE – AFRICAN DIASPORA IN THE CARIBBEANSome of the Africans caught in the heinous European slave trade and ended up in the plantations of the Caribbean Islands happened to be Muslims.

Some of them may have been caught up while on transit in search for knowledge or while engaged in jihad, for they arrive their final destinations with Arabic manuscripts, concealed to avoid seizure from the ever suspecting white slave masters. A number of them appear to have come from West Africa; the case of Abubakar who was a scholar of some appreciable learning who eventually got freed and even returned to his native Jenne in Masina, in contemporary Mali, has been well documented. Another case of Muhammad Kaba, (otherwise known by the Christian name they were given in plantations, Robert Peart) who hails from an area east of Timbuktu and who was also a scholar, is also well known. Muslim slaves generally appear to have continued in spirit if not in reality to study and live Islamic life, resisted slavery and to have led what is often referred to as slave riots.It was not unusual for Arabic manuscripts from new arriving slaves to be circulated discreetly among Muslims in the plantations. One such document called the Wathiqah, from all the descriptions, the Wathiqat Ahl Sudan of Shehu Usman, arrived Jamaica in the late 1820’s. This document, written by Shaykh Usman, on the eve of the jihad in Sokoto, was aimed at mobilising the Jama’a for the jihad. It therefore contained the reasons that necessitated jihad in Hausaland and a passionate appeal to Muslims to come out to make hijra and fight jihad.

It was indeed, as Bivar described it, a manifesto of the jihad. Some of the injustices and oppressions in the slave plantations must have had some resemblance to the ones addressed to in the Wathiqa, for it got a great reception among the slaves in the Jamaican plantations. It was secretly circulated and though in Arabic its message of jihad got through and was well received. In 1832 the slaves in Manchester, an area in Jamaica, under the leadership of Muhammad Kaba, rose up in jihad against their tyrannical white masters. This jihad triggered similar jihads among slaves in these plantations and for the next few years the whole area became restive. These jihads were known by the white plantation owners as the famous slave riots.Here then is an echo of the jihad of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio in far away Caribbean. The Wathiqa may not, indeed could not, have been the only document that found its way into the Caribbean. Some of the arriving slaves may well have been in one way or the other part of the Jama’a or extensions thereof. All these factors may have facilitated the impact of the jihad of Shaykh Usman in the West Indies. The impact itself could not have been limited to the uprisings in the plantations. By making Islam a rallying point and symbol of liberation from the shackle of the oppressions of the white man, the impact of Shaykh Usman had helped transform Islam into a liberating force. This posture of Islam in the Americas and the Caribbean has endured to this day and remains one of the most motivating factors for the increasing conversions to Islam among the black Diaspora.

[cxvi] Mombasa Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 2, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9053288>

[cxvii] On 16 June 1857, Burton and Speke set sail for the mainland in a naval vessel loaned by the sultan of Zanzibar. From Bagamoyo, now in Tanzania, their caravan marched into the interior. Niggling friction between Burton and Speke was already surfacing. The latter wrote: ‘Captain Burton, being no sportsman, would not stop for shooting.’

After five months’ journey, the party straggled into Tabora, 600 miles from the coast, a settlement founded by Arab traders as a base for slave traffic. Retrieved July 21, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/E/ends/nile3.html

[cxviii] http://home.vicnet.net.au/~neils/africa/livingstone.htm

[cxix] http://chi.gospelcom.net/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps111.shtml– He was the first European to traverse the interior where he constantly passed slave caravans of up to 1,000 slaves tied together with neck yokes or leg irons, carrying ivory or other heavy loads, marching single file 500 miles down to the sea. Men or women slaves who complained about their load were promptly speared to death and left by the wayside. One could trace the trail of a slave caravan by the vultures and hyenas that feasted on the corpses it left behind. Livingstone wrote of the slave trade: To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility…. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead…. We came upon a man dead from starvation…. I passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body…. The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be brokenheartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves. Livingstone estimated that 80,000 died each year, during capture or on the journey from the interior before ever reaching the auction blocks of Zanzibar. Once, after walking 120 miles near Lake Nyasa, he was shocked not to see a single human being, so thoroughly had the land been depopulated by the slave trader whom he described as “a monster brooding over Africa.”

[cxx] http://chi.gospelcom.net/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps111.shtml

[cxxi] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year

[cxxii] A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 42.

[cxxiii] Mohsin Farooqi. “Europe Under Muslim Rule: Dr. Mohsin Farooqi takes a look at the history of Muslim rule in Europe to remind the Muslim Ummah of its glorious past”. Jama’at ud Da’wa.Retrieved From the Worldwide Web November 07, 2002:

http://www.jamatdawa.org/english/articles/history/europe_under_islam_iv.htm.

[cxxiv] Mohsin Farooqi. “Europe Under Muslim Rule: Dr. Mohsin Farooqi takes a look at the history of Muslim rule in Europe to remind the Muslim Ummah of its glorious past”. Jama’at ud Da’wa.Retrieved From the Worldwide Web November 07, 2002:

http://www.jamatdawa.org/english/articles/history/europe_under_islam_iv.htm.

[cxxv] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 53.

[cxxvi] Book Title: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Contributors: I. M. Lewis – author. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1988. Page Number: 53.

[cxxvii] Retrieved January 4, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.niu.edu/cseas/outreach/islamSPhil.htm Islam in the Southern Philippines by Isabelle VloeberghsNorthern Illinois University

[cxxviii] Moro Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 4, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9053776>

[cxxix] Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://www.famousmuslims.com/Qadeer%20Khan%20Arrested.htm

[cxxx] As Nuclear Secrets Emerge, More Are SuspectedBy William J. Broad and David E. SangerThe New York TimesSunday 26 December 2004

[cxxxi] Mindanao Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 2, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9052814>

[cxxxii] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://haganah.org.il/harchives/003378.html internet haganáh Confronting the Global Jihad:

Radical Islam and LNG in Trinidad and TobagoCandyce Kelshall (Energy Security): Over the past several years, maritime attacks have become more violent, more frequent and clearly more organized. It is believed that militant groups, particularly in South East Asia, are practicing hijacking ships for their possible use as weapons. Of all types of vessels oil and chemical tankers are perhaps the most attractive targets for terrorists. These vessels are manned by smaller crews and loaded with volatile substances that could potentially cause significant damage. According to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) attacks against tankers are growing at an alarming rate.While all eyes are placed on the area surrounding the Malacca Straits, the world oil bottleneck, and on the Indonesian coast off Aceh, very little attention is placed on the U.S. underbelly of the Caribbean and the softer targets in the region closest to America’s back yard: Trinidad, Venezuela and the Bahamas.

These Caribbean countries are among the short list of natural gas producing countries and liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exporters. Trinidad and Tobago alone account for 80% (1st quarter 2004) of all U.S. LNG imports, up from 68% in 2002. Therefore, any incident involving an LNG tanker along the Caribbean routes could harm not only U.S. energy security but also the economies of the Caribbean islands, affecting tourism and other industries.LNG and Tanker TerrorismU.S. Department of Energy figures paint a bleak picture for U.S. dependence on imported energy in the coming decades. Existing well heads in the U.S. are being depleted while demand for natural gas is expected to rise 2% a year. Imports from Canada, whose own energy demand is increasing, are projected to pick up some of the burden. But Canada’s gas demand is growing faster than expected, also due to the gas intensive process of converting tar sands to crude oil, and thus its ability to export gas to the U.S. is being diminished. The U.S. will therefore be required to import more of its gas in LNG form from Nigeria, Sao Tome, Trinidad, Venezuela and the Persian Gulf. Today 2% of total gas usage in the U.S. is derived from LNG. By 2010 this figure is likely to grow to 10%.LNG terminals and tankers present potential targets for terrorists. In the pre-9/11 world LNG tankers were considered among the safest ships at sea. These tankers are still as safe as is possible for a vessel of this nature today. But this statement is only valid if one pre-supposes that terrorists do not want an easily attainable weapon of mass destruction. The potential for mass casualty maritime suicide terrorism has changed our perceptions of safety at sea especially when it comes to lean crewed LNG tankers and other PCG (Petro/chemical/gas) and ships. With maritime terrorists currently combing the world for ways to make their message reach as wide an audience as possible, LNG tankers could be their perfect mass casualty weapon.Islamic fundamentalism in Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago is a beautiful country in the Southern part of the Caribbean. It is in fact the southernmost of the Caribbean islands and the last island before Venezuela. It is one of the most affluent of the Caribbean islands with, for several years, the highest foreign direct investment per capita in the entire western hemisphere except for Canada. The home of tourism, steel band, calypso and carnival is unfortunately also the home of one of the first attempts at violently establishing a modern Islamic extremist state in the region after the attempted Islamic coup in July 1990. 15% of the island’s population is Muslim.The group responsible, Jama’at al Muslimeen under the control of Imam Yasin Abu Bakr, is alive and thriving in Trinidad.

Congressional testimony of Major General Gary D. Speer, Acting Commander in Chief U.S. Southern Command to the House Appropriations Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Foreign Operations in April 2002 stated: “The recent bombing outside the U.S Embassy in Peru preceding President Bush’s visit is indicative that other domestic terrorist groups pose threats to the United States elsewhere in the hemisphere. These include, but are not limited to, the Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in Peru and the Jama’at al Muslimeen (JAM) in Trinidad and Tobago.”

Posted by aaron at December 30, 2004 06:54 PM Database of jihad sites Internet Haganah, sponsored in part by… TerrorTracker An Odyssey into Pure Fear by Neil Doyle terrortracker.co.uk Internet Haganah We get results! To place an ad directly with Internet Haganah email: alhaganah dash advertise at yahoo dot comContribute to Internet Haganah: Without your support this site will *not* continue. You can contribute via PayPal: or send check or money orders to:A. Aaron Weisburd Internet Haganah PMB #239 1809 West Main Street Carbondale, IL 62901 contact: alhaganah dash contact at yahoo dot com

[cxxxiii] Michael CatanzaroSouth America’s Drug-Terror Link, Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.taemag.com/issues/articleid.17315/article_detail.asp The American Enterprise

[cxxxiv] Title: The Pakistani Time Bomb ,By: Alexiev, Alex, Commentary, 00102601, Mar2003, Vol. 115, Issue  http://islamizationwatch.blogspot.com/2009/03/alex-alexiev-about-radical-islam-and.html

[cxxxv] Title: Reclaiming Kid Killers ,By: North, Oliver, Human Events, 00187194, 4/5/2004, Vol. 60, Issue 12

[cxxxvi] Robert D. KaplanThe Lawless Frontier Retrieved January 7, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.indianembassy.org/int_media/sep_2000/The%20Lawless%20Frontier%20-%2000_09%20(Part%20Three).htm Atlantic Monthly S E P T E M B E R2 0 0 0

[cxxxvii] Retrieved January 6, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://times.hankooki.com/lpage/nation/200501/kt2005010317033011970.htm Hankooki.com > The Korea Times > Nation NK Sold Firearms to Philippines Militia: Yomiuri By Park Song-wu

[cxxxviii] Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_apartment_bombings

[cxxxix] Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_apartment_bombings

[cxl] Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_apartment_bombings

[cxli] Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_apartment_bombings

[cxlii] Monday November 29 10:40 AM ET, 2000. S.Africa Blames ‘Organized Group’ forPizza BombBy Jeremy Lovell

[cxliii] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://allafrica.com/stories/printable/200110110439.html allAfrica.com Jihad Talk Fuels Local Muslim’s EmotionsMail & Guardian (Johannesburg) NEWS October 12, 2001 Posted to the web October 11, 2001By Mail & Guardian ReportersThis week’s spate of revenge attacks against Afghanistan by the United States and its allies have fuelled talk of a “holy war” between Muslims and the “infidel West”.This has exposed the fault lines within the local Muslim community – with believers torn between respecting the laws of South Africa – which expressly forbid citizens to render mili-tary assistance abroad, and fulfilling their duty as followers of Islam, which call for a sacred defence of Muslim lands under threat.The call by alleged terror mastermind Osama bin Laden for Muslims to rise up in defence of their faith has produced mixed reactions among local Muslims.

These have ranged from caution -the website of a local Muslim body, the Jamiatul Ulama, widely regarded as “pro-Taliban”, urged restraint by local Muslims, and called on them to respect South African law – to overt calls for military action by at least two prominent organisations in the Western Cape, including the controversial Qibla Movement.Judging from the rhetoric, virtually every Muslim male in South Africa would be ready to be drafted for the holy war. Some told the Mail & Guardian an attack on any Muslim state is by proxy an affront to all Muslims, and must necessarily be supported by all adherents of the religion.Suleiman Selebi, a Johannesburg-based da’ee or propagator of the faith, holds this view. He says the US was just using the attack as a smokescreen to further its plans of global domination.”The Western world and its surrogate, Israel, is using the World Trade Centre attack to achieve this objective,” he says, adding that the attacks against Afghanistan were “absolutely satanic and an affront to the Muslims.”We too are saying: ‘You are either with us or with them’,” says Selebi. “We are duty-bound and prepared for war against America and its allies irrespective of what South African laws say. We follow the laws of the Creator and not man-made ones.”

Writer and poet, and associate editor of the Sowetan newspaper, Don Mattera, gave a more guarded response. He said the “siege” of Aghanistan was no different to similar ones that the US and its allies visited on other countries around the globe. Mattera said suffering knew no religious, ethnic or political boundaries.”I don’t differentiate between the siege in Afghanistan and that in Libya; or the one in Iraq where people continue to be bombed and where 7 000 people have been killed from diseases and hunger.”What we are witnessing is something that will never end unless the global capitalists and the people who vote for them wake up to the reality that peace and compassion are far greater weapons than bombs.”Contrary to their fiery rhetoric during protests leading up to the US strikes on Afghanistan, the University of the Witwatersrand’s Muslim students Association (MSA) appears far from ready to jet off to Kabul.In principle, most members say, they are opposed to war, but some went on to add that it was “impractical” to go to fight in Afghanistan. Mohammed Cajee, president of the MSA, says: “We all sympathise with the people who died in the US, but they are using it as an excuse to get into the region.”He dismissed suggestions that planeloads of youth from South Africa were heading to Afghanistan to fight.”Some may go in their private capacity but most will not,” he says, pointing out that Muslims in South Africa should be more open to fight against all forms of oppression, as opposed to fighting for only Muslim causes.Cajee says it is important to distinguish between supporting Muslim brethren, and supporting the Taliban – criticised for its narrow, rigid and archaic brand of Islam. “I would not go to fight,” he concludes.Rafiek Fredericks, a first-year engineering student, relies heavily on Islamic cosmology to explain a decision to go and fight or not. “If it’s in your taqdeer [destiny] then you will fight. Your faith has to be really strong to fight.”Mohammed Nanabhay, a final-year computer science student, says he would not go to Afghanistan to fight either. “It is an emotive time for all, but we can show our support by giving humanitarian aid or praying for them.” He agrees with Cajee that the majority of Muslim students on campus do not support the Taliban.”We do not support them ideologically but will support them in brotherhood,” he says.The government says it will not sound alarm bells over rumours that locals are enlisting to fight for the Taliban in Afghanistan.Referring to widespread reports of “jihad training camps” operating on South African soil priming recruits to go to the central Asian country to fight against US, a senior Department of Foreign Affairs official said the talk was little more than “hot air”.He said the local Muslim community is “well-known” for threatening to take up arms in conflicts in Muslim countries, but this seldom, if ever, translated into concrete action.

Another source close to the African National Congress said the government is engaging with key local community leaders to get them to channel their humanitarian assistance to the region through bigger aid agencies. He said this would avoid potential embarrassment to the government later on if the organisations were found to be indirectly aiding the Taliban.The “paper tiger” image of local Muslims was not, however, entirely dismissed. The Department of Foreign Affairs said this week it would be “unfortunate if we ignore the reported threats” by organisations calling for a holy war.Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Aziz Pahad said local groups conscripting Muslims to fight abroad would face the full might of the law. In terms of the Foreign Military Assistance Act of 1998, no South African citizens or permanent resident may offer or attempt to render military assistance to any foreign state or organ of state – unless authorised to do so by the National Conventional Arms Control Committee. Pahad warned that anyone who contravenes the Act is liable to a fine or imprisonment.The Cape-Town based Muslim Judicial Council this week scoffed at the government’s warnings, saying the government did not have the legi-slative power to proscribe the movements or activities of South African Muslims. Copyright © 2004 Mail & Guardian. All rights reserved. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).

[cxliv] Wednesday September 13 12:41 PM ETCape Town Bombing CampaignEscalatingBy Jeremy Lovell CAPE TOWN (Reuters)

[cxlv] Saturday May 5, 2001 2:32 PMIndonesia arrests leader of Moluccas’ Muslim warriorsJAKARTA (Reuters)

[cxlvi] Joseph Fara.Slavery has not ended.WorldNetDaily.

Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=22134

[cxlvii] Retrieved from the World Wide WebFebruary 26, 2003

http://www.hvk.org/articles/1002/93.html

HinduNet Forums Chat Annouce Calender DigiCards Recommend Remote InvitesSearchAn Al-Qa’ida-Affiliated Online Magazine: On the Importance of Jihad as a Means of Destroying the ‘Infidel Countries’Author: Publication: MEMRI Date: September 4, 2002 URL: http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP41802

[cxlviii] Special Dispatch – Jihad and TerrorismDecember 6, 2002 No. 447To view this Special Dispatch in HTML format, please visit: http://www.memri.org/bin/opener_latest.cgi?ID=SD44702

[cxlix] http://dailymailnews.com/200312/12/column.html

The Daily Mail

Islamabad, Friday, 12 December, 2003Saad’s launchingPakistan Navy Submarine Saad — Pride of Pakistan By Captain Iftikhar Riaz Qureshi PN Ex Commanding Officer PNS/M Khalid & PNS/M Saad

[cl] Retrieved October 29, 2003, from the World Wide Web

http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=200310290207099

Updated: 02:07 AM EST AP: Global Funding Trail Leads to Kashmir APTuesday, Oct. 28, 2003

[cli] As Nuclear Secrets Emerge, More Are SuspectedBy William J. Broad and David E. SangerThe New York TimesSunday 26 December 2004

[clii] http://demand1.stream.aol.com/ramgen/cnn/aolbb/world/2004/08/17/rodgers.militant.muslims.cnn.rv8.rm

CNN 8/17/2004

[cliii] Retrieved September 23, 2004, from the World Wide Webhttp://daily.nysun.com/Repository/getmailfiles.asp?Style=OliveXLib:ArticleToMail&Type=text/html&Path=NYS/2004/08/
18&ID=Ar00901 Go To The New York Sun Home PagePublication:The New York Sun; Date:Aug 18, 2004; Section:Foreign; Page:9 THE MEMRI REPORTIranian Talk Of an Attack On AmericaBy STEVEN STALINSKY

[cliv] Retrieved June 10, 2005, from the World Wide Web : http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/12/31/opinion/eddatt.html

[clv] Retrieved September 10, 2004, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.kavkazcenter.com/eng/article.php?id=3166 Search: 10 09 2004 Fri. 08:37 Djokhar Time РусскийEnglishtürkçeAddress by President of C.R.I. A. Maskhadov to the Chechen people

[clvi] Retrieved January 5, 2005, from the World Wide Webhttp://www.sudantribune.com/article_impr.php3?id_article=6901 Sudan Tribune Click here to close this window Wed, Jan 05, 2005 23:52 UT Sudan’s Darfur militia attacks villages force 7,000 to flee Wednesday December 8th, 2004.By Opheera McDoomKHARTOUM, Dec 8 (Reuters) – Tribesmen attacked villages in Sudan’s Darfur region last week, forced 7,000 people from their homes and looted in the area, the U.N. said on Wednesday.African Union ceasefire monitor Maj. Panduleni Martin, center, talks with Commander Abdul Waheed Saeed, center-left, who is in charge of a military unit calling themselves variously the Border Intelligence Division, Second Reconnaisance Brigade, or the Quick and the Horrible, also believed to form part of the Janjaweed militia, at the weekly animal market in Mistiria in North Darfur, Sudan, Tuesday, Oct 5, 2004.(AP)A U.N. report said 15 bodies had been found in the area around the town of Edwa in Darfur, where the United States said on Tuesday international efforts had failed to stop violence which has displaced more than 1.6 million.The U.N. report did not say who had launched the attack. But aid community sources had said mounted Arab militias, known as the Janjaweed, had on Dec. 1 carried out an attack for the first time in months around Edwa.”Most of the approximately 7,000 population from the area appear to have fled to Jeruf, a … (rebel-)held location…and Duma,” the U.N. report issued in Khartoum said.Both are villages near Edwa, which lies on a major trade route between north and south Darfur. “The town and surrounding area had been subject to attack by armed tribesmen,” the U.N. report added.The African Union (AU) has said its forces, which are monitoring a ceasefire between government and rebel forces in Darfur, came under fire while on their way to verify fighting near Edwa.The government says its police forces also entered Edwa on Dec. 1 because the town had been used as a rebel base to loot commercial and aid vehicles. Khartoum said this week security forces had found dozens of stolen vehicles there.Darfur rebels took up arms against Khartoum nearly two years ago in protest at what they said was the region’s marginalisation of the arid region.The rebels accuse Khartoum of backing the Janjaweed to put down the rebellion and conduct a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur’s non-Arabs. Washington has called the violence genocide. Khartoum denies links with the Janjaweed.PLAGUED BY BANDITRYJohn Danforth, U.S. ambassador at the United Nations, on Tuesday called on the African Union to send more forces to Darfur to halt atrocities.”We are getting nowhere with respect to Darfur,” he said after the Security Council reviewed a report by U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan saying Darfur was in chaos, plagued by banditry, rape and village burnings.”The rebels and the government and the militia, all sides are complicit in the disaster. They sign agreements which apparently mean nothing at all,” Danforth said.The African Union has pledged 3,300 monitors and troops to Darfur but has only about 900 on the ground.”Let’s get as many African Union people as we can in there, and let’s at least get the full 3,300 that have been committed,” he said.Annan’s report to the Security Council said 2.3 million people were in desperate need of aid in Darfur, where the World Health Organisation estimates more than 70,000 people have died since March from malnutrition and disease.A joint U.N.-Sudanese food security report said erratic rainfall and conflict had created an 80 percent shortfall in food supply in Darfur during 2004. It predicted a similar pattern for 2005, the U.N. report also said.A top U.N. aid official called Sudan’s decision to expel the country head of British charity Oxfam “very bad” and said he hoped it would be reversed, as had happened in the past.Expelling aid officials was not “the way to treat those of us who come there to help”, United Nations Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland said in Geneva.Sudan on Tuesday accused Oxfam director Shaun Skelton of violating visa regulations by working in Khartoum when his permit was for Darfur, and ordered him to leave as soon as possible.(Additional reporting by Richard Waddington in Geneva)

[clvii] Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://members.aol.com/casmasalc/african_slave_trade.html

Excerpts from African Slave Trade 1995 by Coalition AGAINST slaves in Mauritania and Sudan (CASMAS). Frida Berrigan

Peace Accord in Sudan. Guerrilla News Network

Tue, 25 Jan 2005 09:14:37 -0800

http://gnn.tv/articles/1093/Peace_Accord_in_Sudan

Frida Berrigan is a senior research associate with the ArmsTradeResourceCenter, a project of the World Policy Institute.

[clviii] April 23, 2002, Tuesday

A Slave’s Journey In Sudan

By NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF (NYT) Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30F12FD355B0C708EDDAD0894DA404482&incamp=archive:search

[clix] CHARLES JACOBS

Pres., American Anti-Slavery Group. Slavery in Sudan.New York Times.

Boston, April 27, 2001.Published: 05 – 02 – 2001 , Late Edition – Final , Section A , Column 4 , Page 18.New York Times

EDITORIAL DESK | April 27, 2001, Friday

Redemption of Sudanese Slaves

(NYT) Editorial 619 words

Late Edition – Final , Section A , Page 24 , Column 1. New York Times FOREIGN DESK| April 25, 1999, Sunday

Selling Sudan’s Slaves Into Freedom

By IAN FISHER (NYT) 1571 words

Late Edition – Final , Section 1 , Page 10 , Column 4

[clx] Retrieved November 5, 2004, from the World Wide Webhttp://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20041105170509990006 Updated: 07:31 PM EST Dutch Vow Tough Measures After Death Threat Letter on Dead Filmmaker’s Body Threatened Dutch Official By ANTHONY DEUTSCH, AP

[clxi] Dana R. Dillon.Southeast Asia and the Brotherhood of Terrorism. Retrieved July 16, 2005, from the World Wide Web.Heritage Foundation.Heritage.org/research/asiaandthepacific/wm716.cfm

[clxii] GlobalSecurity.orgRetrieved July 16, 2005, from the World Wide Web

[clxiii] Retrieved April 28, 2004, from the World Wide Web

http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20040427223209990001

At Least 112 Killed in Thailand Fighting By ALISA TANG, APPATTANI, Thailand (April 28)

[clxiv]Full text at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4660391.stm. Retrieved July 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web

Statement claiming London attacks